放射学和肿瘤学杂志》上 //m.lakotalakes.com/jro Heighpubs开放获金博宝app体育取期刊上 en - us 血管内平滑肌瘤误诊为深静脉血栓形成:一个案例报告 06/30/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1037.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2>& lt; p>背景:平滑肌瘤本身并不是一种罕见的疾病,但却很少发现血管内灵活;/ p>& lt; p>案例演示:54岁女性寻求医疗帮助注意到了她的腿肿胀。诊断深静脉血栓形成(DVT)和抗血栓形成的治疗得到了初始成像后考试。几天后,对比CT和连续病理显示真正的诊断是血管内平滑肌瘤。病人出院后一个成功的手术。;/ p>& lt; p>结论:血管内平滑肌瘤不应被混淆与深静脉血栓形成。;/ p> HRCT系统性sclerosis-associated间质性肺病的成像特性 04/27/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1036.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate radiographic features of systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease.</p> <p>Patients and methods: 116 patients with systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) from 2010 to 2019 comprised our retrospective study. All patients were subject to high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). ILD patterns were classified into 7 patterns as IIPs and analyzed with pathology. We chose two staging method and two semi-quantitative score methods to evaluate the HRCT performance and analyzed with pulmonary function tests.</p> <p>Results: Ground-glass opacities were the most common presentation on HRCT, followed by interlobular septal thickening, reticular opacities, intralobular interstitial thickening; honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and nodules can also be observed. The most common pattern of SSc-ILD was nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), secondly was UIP. There was no difference in ILD pattern between HRCT and pathology, and revealed a high congruence. The four HRCT evaluating methods presented in this study all had significant relationships with PETs.</p> <p>Conclusion: The most common pattern of SSc-ILD was nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). The ILD patterns of HRCT coincide very well with histology, and will replace pathology as the gold standard for diagnosis and evaluation of SSc-ILD.</p> 成像模式的RNAi疗法在癌症治疗和临床应用 03/04/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1035.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>The RNA interference (RNAi) technique is a new modality for cancer therapy, and several candidates are being tested clinically. Nanotheranostics is a rapidly growing field combining disease diagnosis and therapy, which ultimately may add in the development of &lsquo;personalized medicine&rsquo;.</p> <p>Technologies on theranostic nanomedicines has been discussed. We designed and developed bioresponsive and fluorescent hyaluronic acid-iodixanol nanogels (HAI-NGs) for targeted X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging and chemotherapy of MCF-7 human breast tumors. HAI-NGs were obtained with a small size of ca. 90 nm, bright green fluorescence and high serum stability from hyaluronic acid-cystamine-tetrazole and reductively degradable polyiodixanol-methacrylate via nanoprecipitation and a photo-click crosslinking reaction. This chapter presents an over view of the current status of translating the RNAi cancer therapeutics in the clinic, a brief description of the biological barriers in drug delivery, and the roles of imaging in aspects of administration route, systemic circulation, and cellular barriers for the clinical translation of RNAi cancer therapeutics, and with partial content for discussing the safety concerns. Finally, we focus on imaging-guided delivery of RNAi therapeutics in preclinical development, including the basic principles of different imaging modalities, and their advantages and limitations for biological imaging. With growing number of RNAi therapeutics entering the clinic, various imaging methods will play an important role in facilitating the translation of RNAi cancer therapeutics from bench to bedside.</p> 肛门癌间质近距离放射疗法的影响 02/01/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1034.php <h2>Summary</h2> <p>We evaluated a total of 115 patients diagnosed with anal cancer, who were treated at our clinic from 1995 to 2012. Their average age was 61 years, most often were diagnosed in stages II and III, in most cases it was a squamous cell carcinoma located in the anal canal. The mean follow-up was 83 months (minimum 1 month and maximum 240 months). We combined external radiotherapy with boost of brachytherapy or boost of external radiotherapy and possibly a combination of both boosts. Half of the patients received concomitant chemotherapy. We specifically evaluated local tumor regression, overall survival and the impact to therapeutic effect of the chosen irradiation technique. Complete regression was achieved in 92 patients, partial regression in 21 patients. Overall survival, regardless of stage, was 80% 3-year, 74% 5-year and 67% 10-year. The age of patients, the size of their own primary tumor and the therapeutic method used had a statistically significant effect on survival - especially the importance of brachytherapy was irreplaceable.</p> 胸腔HRCT在rt - pcr COVID-19负口腔癌患者的术前评估 12/22/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1033.php <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background: Oral cancer accounts for 30% of all types of cancer in India. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment but due to the recent outbreak of COVID-19, there is a partial or complete disruption of health services in the country. The initial delay in the treatment was due to cancellations of planned surgeries as per government regulations and reduction in public transportation. In the latter half of the initial relaxation of the lockdown, we formulated our institutional protocol for the surgical treatment of oral cancer patients. On admission, all patients were kept in isolated wards followed by RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction) testing on the same day.&nbsp;RT-PCR negative patients are subjected to HRCT Thorax (High-resolution Computer Tomography). This ensured the safety of health care workers,&nbsp;patients, and patient attendees. Keeping this in mind, we did an observational study on the role of HRCT&nbsp;in the pre-operative screening of asymptomatic oral cancer patients.</p> <p>Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of 150 patients was done. HRCT reporting was done by two experienced senior radiologists of the Department of Radiology at our hospital.</p> <p>Results:&nbsp;The number of patients under the CO-RADS 1 category was 121 and CO-RADS 2 category was 29, according to CO-RADS classification. The results of RT-PCR and HRCT were compared&nbsp;and there was a 100% positive correlation between RT-PCR and HRCT Thorax.</p> <p>Conclusion:&nbsp;Our study supported the use of HRCT Thorax as a diagnostic tool in pre-operative screening of oral cancer patients for COVID 19, particularly in RT-PCR negative cases.</p> 8 Gy单剂量放疗对骨转移在COVID-19大流行病期间:审查 05/06/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1032.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Bone metastases in cancer patients are highly painful and decrease the quality of life for these group of population. Covid-19 pandemia is a global challenging issue that mostly affect the patients with immune suppression or having comorbid diseases older than 65 years old. The palliation and management of bone metastases varies from single dose to several fractionation. The main goal of this article is to decide that short or long term fit for the cancer patients with bone metastasis in the Covid-19 era. We reviewed the topic about the short course and long term radiotherapy in the patients with painful bone metastases via novel literature.</p> 主要肛门恶性黑素瘤:一个案例报告 04/15/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1031.php <p>Anal melanoma is a rare and highly aggressive mucosal melanocytic malignancy. It is the third most common after melanomas of the skin and retina. The peak incidence in seen in the sixth and seventh decades. The clinical symptoms are pain, anal mass, bleeding per rectum, tenesmus or change in the bowel habits. It affects anal canal, rectum or both with a tendency to spread along submucosal planes. It is mostly beyond complete resection at the time of diagnosis and majority of patients die of metastasis. MR imaging significantly increases the diagnosis of anal melanoma in its early stages.</p> 局部肺内的多间皮瘤:病例报告 12/05/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1030.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Desmoplastic Malignant Mesothelioma (DMM) is a rare histological subtype of sarcomatoid malignant mesothelioma arising most frequently in the pleura or peritoneum and less frequently in the lung parenchyma.</p> <p><strong>Patient concerns:</strong> A 52-year-old female with no apparent asbestos exposure was referred for consultation in our center after 1 month of cough and no concomitant symptoms of chest.</p> <p><strong>Diagnosis:</strong> Chest computed Tomography (CT) revealed a localized mass measuring 4.5 x 3.9 cm in the right lung middle lobe with inhomogeneous enhancement following injection of contrast, and without pleural lesions, considered a primary intrapulmonary desmoplastic mesothelioma.</p> <p><strong>Interventions:</strong> Surgical intervention was performed.</p> <p><strong>Outcomes:</strong> Following complete tumor resection, the patient declined to receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The final diagnosis of intrapulmonary desmoplastic mesothelioma was confirmed by pathological and immunohistochemical examination. In addition, no local tumor recurrence was observed within 10 months of follow-up.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Even elderly female patients with localized pulmonary masses without significant pleural lesions should not excluded the possibility of malignant mesothelioma in the lungs.</p> 止血suture-tourniquet技术切除后把大静脉鞘为血管内急性血栓形成原生动静脉瘘的血管再通 09/26/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1029.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p><strong>Purpose: </strong>To investigate the suture-tourniquet technique for haemostasis in patients with acute thrombosis of native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) whom underwent manual aspiration thrombectomy using large-bore venous sheaths and high dose heparin.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Between January 2016 and May 2018, patients with acute AVF thrombosis performed successful manual aspiration thrombectomy by using large bore venous sheaths and high dose heparin were included in this retrospective study. Success rate for haemostasis, procedural complications clinical and imaging follow up was reported descriptively.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 52 patients with 64 procedures met the inclusion criteria. In 60(94%) of 64 procedures, successful haemostasis was achieved with suture-tourniquet technique.&nbsp; In 2(3.1%) of the 64 procedures, the suture broke while turning the tourniquet and haematoma occurred in another 3 procedures (4.7%) although suture-tourniquet technique was applied appropriately. Manual compression was performed in these patients. There were 3 major complications unrelated the suture-tourniquet technique.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The suture tourniquet technique can achieve haemostasis rapidly and can be safely used with low complication rates without fistulae thrombosis after large-bore venous sheath removal following treatment of AVF thrombosis.</p> 阴囊血管球瘤:一个案例报告 07/21/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1028.php <h2>Introduction</h2> <p>Glomus tumors are rare, usually benign, lesions that arise most often in the<br /> extremities. They are derived from the glomus body and have a propensity to be found in the fingers and toes, and often in the subungual area [1]. They typically demonstrate pinprick sensitivity, cold hypersensitivity and paroxysmal pain [2]. Only two glomus tumors of the scrotum have been reported and we report a third case of this rare tumor.</p> 生物剂量计算使用变量RBE单-多优化IMPT计划3脑瘤病人 02/14/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1027.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The purpose of this study was to evaluate biological dose in single-field optimization (SFO) and multi-field optimization (MFO) intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans for brain tumor patients that used a fixed relative biological effectiveness (FRBE) and those that used a variable RBE (VRBE).</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods</strong>: SFO and MFO IMPT plans were planned by the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system for three brain tumor patients. Dose and linear energy transfer (LET) distributions for each plan were recomputed using an in-house fast Monte Carlo dose calculator system, and then biological dose distributions were calculated with a FRBE of 1.1 or with a previously published VRBE model. We then compared biological dose distributions obtained by the VRBE with those obtained by the FRBE.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Doses obtained by the VRBE for the gross tumor volume and clinical target volume in all plans were 1%-2% larger than those obtained by the FRBE. The minimum dose obtained by the VRBE for the brainstem in the SFO IMPT of one patient was 140% larger than that obtained by the FRBE, but the difference was only 5.3 cGy (RBE). The difference in maximum dose for the optic chiasm in the MFO IMPT of another patient was less than 3.2%, but the dose difference was 149.2 cGy (RBE). We also found that no major differences were seen between the biological dose differences in the SFO IMPT plans and those in the MFO IMPT plans.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: We could observe biological dose differences between the FRBE and the VRBE in the SFO and the MFO IMPT plans for brain tumor patients.</p> 磁共振成像诊断精度区分良性和恶性腮腺肿瘤 11/07/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1026.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the diagnostic accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to differentiate Benign and Malignant Parotid Gland Tumors taking histopathology as gold standard.</p> <p><strong>Place and duration of study</strong>: Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Lahore General Hospital, Lahore from January till July 2014.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: 200 patients of age between 5 to 80 years of either gender with parotid gland swelling, having radiological evidence and clinical suspicion of parotid tumour like fixation to underlying skin, pain, facial palsy and cervical lymphadenopathy were taken. T1 and T2 plain and contrast enhanced 1.5 Tesla MRI unit using standard imaging coil was then carried out. Imaging was further evaluated for the presence or absence of benign or malignant parotid gland tumours using histopathology as a Gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of MRI were taken against the gold standard.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: There were 170 males and 30 females having mean age of 40.27&plusmn;15.04 and 40.12&plusmn;12.15 years respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of MRI were 90.4%, 89.33%, 93.39% and 84.41% respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of MRI to differentiate benign and malignant parotid gland tumours was 90%. These results were taken against surgery histopathology as a gold standard.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: MRI is highly accurate in differentiating malignant &amp; benign tumours of parotid glands and can be used as an adjunct to histopathology for pre-operative evaluation of the parotid gland tumours.</p> 比例的积极活检核心预测的主要病变MRI在中间风险前列腺癌患者 10/12/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1025.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p><strong>Background</strong>: Biopsy findings of percentage of positive biopsy cores, percentage of cancer volume, and maximum involvement of biopsy cores have been shown to have prognostic value and correlate with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion.he relationship of these prognostic biopsy factors to MRI findings of the presence of a dominant lesion, has not yet been investigated.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Sixty-five patients with intermediate risk prostate cancer were included in a retrospective cohort. MRI was acquired using either 1.5 Tesla (T) with endorectal coil or a 3 T MRI unit. Findings of extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, and presence and number of dominant lesions were noted. T-test and Cox regression statistical analyses were performed.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Patients with one or more dominant lesions on MRI had a significantly higher mean percentage of positive biopsy cores (56.7% vs 39.8%, p=0.004), percentage of cancer volume (23.5% vs 14.5%, p=0.011) and maximum involvement of biopsy cores (62.9% vs 47.3%, p=0.027) than those without a dominant lesion on MRI. On multivariate analysis, only percentage of positive biopsy cores remained a statistically significant predictor for a dominant lesion on MRI (Hazard Ratio 1.06 [95% CI 1.01-1.12; p=0.02]), whereas prostate-specific antigen, clinical T-stage, Gleason score, percentage of cancer volume, and maximum involvement of biopsy cores were not significant predictors of a dominant lesion on MRI. Receiver-operator characteristic analysis was done and a cutoff value of &gt;=50% was chosen for percentage of positive biopsy cores, &gt;=15% for percentage of cancer volume, &gt;=50% for maximum involvement of biopsy cores.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Percentage of positive biopsy cores was found to be a significant predictor for the presence of a dominant lesion on MRI. This finding is hypothesis-generating and should be confirmed with a prospective trial.</p> 自适应规划和毒性的统一的扫描质子治疗的肺癌患者 09/13/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1023.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p><strong>Purpose</strong>: Adaptive planning is often needed in lung cancer proton therapy to account for geometrical variations, such as tumor shrinkage and other anatomical changes.The purpose of this study is to present our findings in adaptive radiotherapy for lung cancer using uniform scanning proton beams, including clinical workflow, adaptation strategies and considerations, and toxicities.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: We analyzed 165 lung patients treated using uniform scanning proton beams at our center. Quality assurance (QA) plans were generated after repeated computerized tomography (CT) scan to evaluate anatomic and dosimetric change during the course of treatment. Plan adaptation was determined mutually by physicists and physicians after QA plan evaluation, based on several clinical and practical considerations including potential clinical benefit and associated cost in plan adaption. Detailed analysis was performed for all patients with a plan adaptation, including the type of anatomy change, at which fraction the adaption was made, and the strategy for adaptation. Toxicities were compared between patients with and without plan adaptation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Adaptive planning is necessary in proton therapy to account for anatomy change and its effect on proton penetration depth during the course of treatment. It is important to take practical considerations into account and fully understand the limitations of plan adaptation process and tools to make wise decision on adaptive planning. USPT is a safe treatment for lung cancer patients with no Grade 4 toxicity.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In total, 32 adaptive plans were made for 31 patients out of 165 patients, with one patient undergoing adaptive planning twice. Anatomy changes leading to plan adaptation included tumor shrinkage (17), pleural effusion (3), patient weight loss (2), and tumor growth or other anatomy change (9). The plan adaptation occurred at the 15th fraction on average and ranged from the 1st to 31st fraction. Strategies of plan adaptation included range change only (18), re-planning with new patient-specific hardware (9), and others (5). Most toxicities were Grade 1 or 2, with dermatitis the highest toxicity rate.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Adaptive planning is necessary in proton therapy to account for anatomy change and its effect on proton penetration depth during the course of treatment. It is important to take practical considerations into account and fully understand the limitations of plan adaptation process and tools to make wise decision on adaptive planning. USPT is a safe treatment for lung cancer patients with no Grade 4 toxicity.</p> 扫罗赫兹博士发现的医疗使用放射碘(RAI) 09/13/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1022.php <p>Primary sources document Dr. Saul Hertz (1905 - 1950) as conceiving and&nbsp;developing radioiodine (RAI) as a diagnostic tool and&nbsp;as&nbsp;a therapy&nbsp;for thyroid&nbsp;diseases. Dr. Hertz&nbsp;was the first and foremost person to develop the experimental data on RAI and apply it to the clinical setting.</p> 调查的辐射衰减参数中使用的一些药物化疗在广泛的能源 08/04/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1021.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p><strong>Objectives</strong>: The aim of this study is to compute the radiation attenuation parameters such as mass attenuation coeffi cient, linear attenuation coefficient, half value layer, mean free path, and effective atomic number for some selected chemotherapy drugs such as Lomustine, Cisplatin, Carmustine, and Chlorambucil in the energy range from 1 keV to 100 GeV.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: The mass attenuation coefficients were calculated with the help of WinXCOM program. Using the obtained mass attenuation coefficients, other parameters such as linear attenuation coefficient, half value layer, mean free path, and effective atomic number were derived.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: It is observed that the variations of these parameters with respect to the photon energy show changes in different energy regions. According to the obtained results, Cisplatin has the highest mass attenuation coefficient, linear attenuation coefficient and effective atomic number results among the selected chemotherapy drugs. Moreover, Chlorambucil has the highest half value layer and mean free path results among the selected chemotherapy drugs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results of this study are useful for applied science fields such as radiation physics, pharmacology, and medical physics. These results may be useful when the selected chemotherapy drugs are used together with radiology.</p> 临床和放射孤立综合征(MS风险) 07/28/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1020.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p><strong>Background:</strong> The use of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluation of neurological disorders has increased in the past two decades. This has led to an increased detection of incidental findings on brain MRI.The most common of these asymptomatic abnormalities are white matter lesions that are interpreted as demyelinating based on radiological criteria. However, in the absence of associated clinical symptoms suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS), a definite diagnosis of MS can&rsquo;t be made in patients with these incidental white matter lesions. These patients are diagnosed as CIS (clinically isolated syndrome) and RIS (radiologically isolated syndrome).Using the revised McDonald criteria now allows some patients who would have been diagnosed with CIS to be diagnosed as having MS before a second episode.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: Sixty one patients, 40 females and 21 males, age ranged between 15 years and 58 years, were included in our study. In addition to a detailed medical and neurological history and examination, CSF and blood analysis for oligoclonal bands and IgG index were performed for all patients.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: 41 patients had positive oligoclonal bands and IgG index. After clinical, MRI results and laboratory results 44 (72.1%) were diagnosed CIS and 17 (27.9%) were RIS.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Diagnosis of MS not depend only on MRI finding but need clinical and laboratory work up including CSF and blood analysis for oligoclonal bands and IgG index to confirm diagnosis.</p> 偶然发现在传统的核医学实践 07/28/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1019.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>The presence of an&nbsp;incidental finding, defined as an abnormality which is unrelated to the initial scanning indication, is widely increases due to the access to new devices and imaging modalities. This growing number of incidental findings can lead to additional medical care including unnecessary tests nevertheless, in a minority of patients, can lead to diagnosis of an important and unexpected condition that could be crucial for the patient. We reported three cases in which nuclear medicine imaging, performed for different reasons and showed a relevant and unexpected pathology. In the case 1, a bone scan, performed in a 66 aged woman for breast cancer staging, allowed the diagnosis of a uterine fibroma. In the case 2, a HMPAO labeled-WBC scintigraphy performed because of a suspect of osteomyelitis, showed a remarkable heart-shaped photopenic area, highly suggestive of cardiac global dilatation. In the case 3, a 62 aged man referred to bone scintigraphy for the staging of recent diagnosed lung cancer. The bone scan allowed the diagnosis of a meningioma. Therefore, the occurrence of incidental findings could lead to reveal relevant abnormalities for the diagnostic pathway.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 估计血清β2 -微球蛋白在新诊断癌症患儿在巴士拉 05/10/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1018.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p><strong>Background:</strong> Beta 2- micro globulin (&beta;2-MG) is involved in human malignancies. Increased synthesis and release of &beta;2-MG, as indicated by elevated serum, plasma, or urine &beta;2-MG concentration, occurs in several malignant diseases.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The study was designed to assess the role of serum Beta2- micro globulin in the support of the diagnosis of different types of pediatric malignancies.</p> <p><strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: This case - control study was carried out on 137 children and adolescents with newly diagnosed pre-treated malignant diseases who were admitted to pediatric oncology center at Basra Children&rsquo;s Specialty Hospital, their ages ranged from 3 months to 15 years, during the period from the 1st of November 2014 till the end of October 2015, 71 were males and 66 were females and 148 healthy children and adolescents (83 were males and 65 were females) matched for age and sex regarded as control group. Cases and control characteristics were assessed from data collection by special questionnaire. All patients and control group were investigated for Beta2- microglobulin by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The study had revealed that level of Beta2-microglobulin was significantly higher in patients with malignancy in comparison to control group, P value &lt; 0.001.Also the serum Beta2- microglobulin level for both hematological malignancies and solid malignancies was assessed and it was found that significantly higher percentage of elevated serum Beta2- microglobulin level was present in patients with hematological malignancies in comparison to solid malignancies, P value &lt;0.01.The study also had revealed that there was a significant correlation between the initial white blood cells count &ge; 50000 cells/ml and abnormal serum Beta2- microglobulin level, P value &lt; 0.01,but there was no significant differences in serum Beta2- microglobulin level in relation to risk groups and immunophynotypes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia ,morphological subtypes of acute myloid leukemia, stages of each type of lymphoma (Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) and the histopathological subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. After subjecting variables (specific to acute lymphoblastic leukemia) to logistic regression analysis, the significant independent risk factor that associated with abnormal serum Beta2- microglobulin level was high initial white blood cells count (&ge;50000 cells/ml).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Serum Beta2- microglobulin level is significantly higher in patients with hematological malignancies and high initial white blood cells count(&ge;50000cells/ml) .From this study, serum Beta2- microglobulin could be recommended in the initial work up for diagnosis of childhood malignancy.</p> 辐射暴露剂量的评估和氡析出率在沙特阿拉伯的建筑材料 02/23/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1017.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>In the present work, samples of building material are analyzed for their naturally occurring radioisotope activity such as uranium, radium, and radon. The radon emission rates, and the annual effective doses, &ldquo;AED&rdquo;, are also investigated.The activity of twenty-four samples, taken from the local markets of Saudi Arabia, was determined using the &quot;Sealed-cup Technique&rdquo; and Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors, &quot;SSNTD.&rdquo; The uranium concentration activity of the samples is found to vary from 0.62 to 4.68 ppm with an average of 1.92&plusmn;0.42 ppm. The radium concentration varies from 0.61 to 4.64 Bq&middot;kg&minus;1, with an average of 1.91&plusmn;0.42 Bq&middot;kg&minus;1, the radon concentration in the samples varies from 42.29 to 319.97 Bq&middot;m&minus;3 with an average of 131.53&plusmn;28.94 Bq&middot;m&minus;3. The value of the dissolved radon concentration in the collected samples varies from 12.99 to 98.97 Bq&middot;m&minus;3 with an average of 40.41&plusmn;8.89 Bq&middot;m&minus;3. The mass exhalation rates are found to vary from 1.54 to 11.65 mBq&middot;kg&minus;1&middot;h&minus;1, with an average of 4.79&plusmn;1.05 mBq&middot;kg&minus;1&middot;h&minus;1, while the surface inhalation rates vary from 76.97 to 582.35 mBq&middot;m&minus;2&middot;h&minus;1, with an average of 239.38&plusmn;52.66 mBq&middot;m&minus;2&middot;h&minus;1. The AED due to indoor uses varies from 1.07 to 8.07 mSv&middot;y&minus;1, with an average of 3.32&plusmn;0.73 mSv&middot;y&minus;1. The AED due to indoor plus outdoor uses varies from 1.47 to 11.10 mSv&middot;y&minus;1, with an average of 4.56&plusmn;1.0 mSv&middot;y&minus;1. The results of this study show that the values obtained for most samples are within the internationally accepted recommended values. Therefore, these samples can be used as building materials as they do not pose a major risk to humans.</p> 肾上腺机能不全在双边肾上腺转移SBRT实现 02/14/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1016.php <h2>Opinion</h2> <p>Today, there is a considerable increase in localizing adrenal bulks with the bringing radiologic diagnosis methods having high technology into use and improvement in diagnostic tests. Adrenal glands are vital tissues for the organism due to the hormones they secrete. Death is a natural result in the absence of adrenal cortex.Adrenal bulks can be seen with different clinical, laboratory and radiological data. These bulks are often benign and rarely malign. They can be functional or non-functional. Major treatment methods used fort he treatment of adrenal gland primary tumors or metastases are surgery, arterial embolisation, chemical ablation, radiofrequency ablation and radiotherapy [1-4].</p> 哪个是最好的?姑息性放疗脾和脾切除术 02/09/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1015.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Spleen is one of the most important organ of the reticuloendothelial system and coordinates the immune response. Splenectomy is performed for hypersplenism, and staging of hematological malignancy. &nbsp;In conservatively followed patients, radiation therapy can be used to reduce hypersplenism symptoms. Splenectomy or palliative radiotherapy to spleen may probably cause an immune suppressive condition. This may probably local and systemic complications.</p> 自体移植在放射治疗乳腺癌患者 02/09/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1014.php <h2>Letter to the Editor</h2> <p>German surgeon, Vincenz Czerny, transplanted a patient&rsquo;s own lipoma located in the hip to it&rsquo;s breast after gland excision due to mastitis in 1895. Dr. Vincenza reported that for at least a year he didnt observe any problem on the operated breast [1].Injection of adipose tissue to the breast has been used in breast cancer patients during breast reconstruction and lumpectomy. And in cases of revision autologous tissues are used for reconstruction. In clinical practice, many breast cancer patients apply to the clinics mostly after radiotherapy for reconstruction. Rigotti et al used purified autologous lipoaspirates in breast cancer patients with late term complications of radiation therapy and observed increase in neovascularization and wound healing [2]. Panettiere and colleagues compared aesthetic and functional features of fat grafts in radiotherapy received breast cancer patients and control group. In the fat graft group, all clinical symptoms and aesthetic scores were significantly higher than the control group [3].</p> 合成、Radioiodination和生物分布的5 - (5 - (tributylstannyl) benzofuran-2-yl) pyridin-2-amine作为淀粉样蛋白显像剂 12/26/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1013.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>In this work an efficient method developed for the synthesis of 125I-benzofuran-2-yl) pyridin-2-amine (125IBPA), followed by radioiodination with 125I by using Chloramine-T at pH 8. The reaction proceeds within 10 min at room temperature (20-25&deg;C). The radiochemical yield determined by Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) using hexane:ethyl acetate (1:6 v/v) and the purity analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography using a reversed-phase RP18column and acetonitrile:0.1 M ammonium bicarbonate (pH 7.5) (1:1) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml&times;min&minus;1. The radiochemical yield using aH2O2 oxidant found equal to 96.5% with a radiochemical purity of 125I-BPA of over 96.5%. The biodistribution data in normal mice indicated a high initial uptake of 6.54&plusmn;0.10 (% ID/g&plusmn;SD) in the brain within 30 min post-injection. These results promote a further the use of 125I-BPA as a novel agent for brain imaging.</p> 完全缓解附近177路- psma dkfz - 617治疗病人转移性前列腺癌去势抵抗 12/05/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1012.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Prostate specific membrane antigen, a type II transmembrane protein is an excellent target for the radionuclide therapy in advanced prostate cancer patients due to its high expression in the prostate cancer cells.We present the case of a 69-year old man with advanced metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. In view of rising serum PSA levels despite hormonal and chemotherapy, we decided to perform a 68Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT scan (prostate specific membrane antigen). It revealed intense radiotracer uptake in the prostate, lymph nodes and multiple skeletal sites. Five cycles of 177Lu-PSMA-DKFZ-617 radioligand therapy were administered in the patient followed by an intrim 68Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT. Intrim 68Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT scan demonstrated a near complete remission of disease with a corresponding decrease in the sPSA levels. During the follow-up duration of 12 months, the patient did not develop haematological, kidney and liver toxicity during the course of treatment and follow-up. 177Lu-PSMA-DKFZ-617 is a promising therapeutic option in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients.</p> 高热和乳腺癌:一个简短的回顾 10/17/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1011.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>The main goal of hyperthermia is to elevate the tumor temperature to kill tumor cells and improve local control. The usage of hyperthermia is combination with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Hyperthermia is delivered in different types of cancers like breast cancer, melanoma and sarcoma.Breast cancer treatment enroll surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapy. Hyperthermia is given once or twice a week concomitantly with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. This short review will enlight the types, physics, and the results of hyperthermia especially in the management of breast cancer therapy.</p> ra - 223核医学二氯化管理单位:转介机构的经验 09/27/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1010.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Ra-223 dichloride is a first-in-class alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical recently introduced into clinical practice for treatment of men with Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC) and symptomatic bone metastases.Due to the proven benefit on Overall Survival and the favorable toxicity profile, Ra-223 therapy is gaining widespread use in both US and Europe. In this article, we describe the routinary management of patients undergoing Ra-223 treatment in our Institution.</p> <p>Currently, Ra-223 therapy is indicated for 6 intravenous injections (55 kBq per kg of body weight) administered every 28 days. In comparison to other radiopharmaceuticals, Ra-223 handling and administration do not need any additional training for authorized users. Due to the minimal external dose rate emission, Ra-223 dichloride can be delivered in an outpatient setting. Moreover, no particular precautions other than standard hygiene measures must be taken by patients&rsquo; family members or caregivers. Ra-223 therapy is associated to a favorable hematologic toxicity profile, while non-hematologic adverse events are generally mild and easy to manage.</p> <p>Given the favorable toxicity profile of this treatment, clinical trials are currently ongoing to evaluate efficacy and safety of Ra-223 treatment in combination or sequence with recently approved drugs such as abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide and sipuleucel-T. In addition, the recent interest in Ra-223 bone lesion dosimetry could open the way to a dosimetric-based therapeutic approach with Ra-223. In this new scenario, results of these promising clinical trials may help clarifying the optimal sequencing of new therapeutic possibilities for metastatic CRPC and the appropriate eligibility criteria for Ra-223 treatment in oncologic patients.</p> 光子的吸收特征选择酶抑制剂用于癌症研究范围1 kev - 100 GeV的能量 08/21/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1009.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>The absorption parameters such as total mass attenuation coefficients, molecular, atomic, and electronic cross sections, effective atomic numbers and electron densities were calculated for some selected enzyme inhibitors in the photon energy range from 1 keV up to 100 GeV.The changes in the absorption parameters were interpreted with the photoelectric effect, Compton scattering and pair production processes. It is observed that the 2-Imino-1-imidazolidineacetic acid enzyme inhibitor has more radiation shielding feature when compared to other chosen enzyme inhibitors. The present investigation is anticipated to be useful for researchers studying with radiation in several fields and cancer researchers.</p> 放射学评估Chondromyxoid纤维瘤 07/27/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1008.php & lt; h2> ABSTRACT< / h2><p>Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a very rare benign cartilaginous tumor representing less than 0.5% of all bone tumors while also being the rarest cartilaginous bone tumor. Common locations of occurrence include the metaphysial region of the proximal tibia and distal femur. We report a case of a 10-year-old female affected by a CMF of the left lower tibia.The radiological features demonstrated by X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are discussed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>INTRODUCTION</p> 时间终止LNT:辐射监管机构应采用LT 06/26/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1007.php & lt; h2> ABSTRACT< / h2>& lt; p>线性无阈假设(LNT)——从观察高剂量辐射监管policy-extrapolates伤害的基础假设低剂量的伤害,这就涉及到所有的电离辐射是有害的,否认任何生物反应损伤和断言累积一生伤害,无论剂量和剂量率。的方方面面LNT是明显错误的。有进化生物反应修复或删除放射损伤从低剂量和剂量率,从而避免急性伤害,从而排除所谓的累积伤害。LNT及其后代,,宝贝,低至合理achievable&”,原则,不要宁可谨慎;也不是真正的保守派。公众需要保护从放射恐怖,而不是从低剂量的辐射。辐射法规和医学实践应该基于LNT,而是至少作为第一步,在一个线性(到)阈值(LT)模型。;/ p> 金属输尿管的支架一个性价比不错的备用方案在远端输尿管阻塞的管理 05/04/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1006.php <h2>INTRODUCTION</h2> <p>Management of obstruction of the distal-pelvic ureters by minimally invasive procedures such as antigrade or retrograde double &ldquo;J&rdquo; stents has generally been unsatisfactory. Corrective surgical procedures mandate long hospitalization, hence high cost, and have a moderate incidence of complications.</p> 短的合成生物效应和等效剂量放疗 04/15/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1005.php & lt; h2> ABSTRACT< / h2><p>The limits of classical equivalent computation based on time, dose, and fractionation (TDF) and linear quadratic models have been known for a long time. Medical physicists and physicians are required to provide fast and reliable interpretations regarding the delivered doses or any future prescriptions relating to treatment changes.&nbsp;In this letter, we propose an outline related to the different models usable for equivalent and biological doses that are likely to be the most appropriate. The used methodology is based on: the linear-quadratic-linear model of Astrahan, the repopulation effects of Dale, and the prediction of multi-fractionated treatments of Thames.</p> Inter-Observer可变性的商业在质子治疗病人定位和验证系统 02/06/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1004.php & lt; h2> ABSTRACT< / h2>& lt; p> & lt; strong>目的:& lt; / strong>在放射治疗患者的准确定位是至关重要的。充分受益于质子治疗的严谨,图像引导病人定位和验证系统通常用于质子治疗。本研究的目的是评估使用商用图像对齐的inter-observer可变性在质子治疗,病人定位和验证系统;/ p>& lt; p> & lt; strong> Methods< / strong>: VeriSuite病人定位和验证系统(MedCom GmbH,达姆施塔特,德国)提供了一种六自由度修正通过注册两个正交向量x射线图像数字化重建射线照片(DRR)图像实时呈现从规划计算机断层扫描(CT)图像。6例各种疾病的网站,包括大脑,头,amp;脖子、肺癌、前列腺癌、骨盆和膀胱,被用于这项研究。对于每个案例,规划CT图像和一双每日正交x射线门户形象被加载到VeriSuite系统。相同的x射线图像和CT图像分别综述了针对每种情况和一致的每10放射治疗师,在相应疾病的临床过程。结果修正向量被记录和分析。;/ p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Our study shows that the inter-observer variation (One standard deviation) in image alignment using the VeriSuite system ranged from 1.2 to 2.0 mm for translational correction and from 0.6 to 1.3 degrees for rotational correction for the six cases. The use of fiducial markers for prostate patient alignment achieved the least inter-observer variation while the bladder case produced the largest.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Inter-observer variation in image alignment could be relatively large, depending on the complexity of patient anatomy, image alignment approach, and user experience and software limitations. Automatic registration and fiducial markers could potentially be used to align patient more accurately and consistently. To ensure adequate tumor coverage in proton therapy, inter-observer variability in patient alignment should be carefully evaluated and accounted for in patient setup uncertainty analysis and treatment planning margin determination.</p> 使用数学过程计算衰减Coeffi字母系数谱分析领域 02/06/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1003.php & lt; h2> ABSTRACT< / h2><p>In gamma-ray spectrometry, the analysis of the environmental radioactivity samples (soil, sediment and ash of a living organism) needs to know the linear attenuation coefficient of the sample matrix. This coefficient is required to calculate the self-absorption correction factor through the sample bulk.In addition, these parameters are very important because the unidentified samples can be different in the composition and density from the reference liquid sources which are usually used for efficiency calibration in the radioactive monitoring process. The present work is essentially concerned to introduce a mathematical method to calculate the linear attenuation coefficient without using any collimator. This method was based mainly on the calculations of the effective solid angle subtended by the source-to-the detector configurations, the efficiency transfer technique and the average path lengths through the samples itself. The method can be used as a tool for the calculation of the linear attenuation coefficient of unidentified materials with good facility to use it in the calibration process of &gamma;-ray detectors, particularly in the study of soil samples. The results are compared with the data from NIST-XCOM to show how much the results are in close agreement and to give the validity of the approach.</p> 经验公式计算我³射线探测器有效立体角比率 01/27/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1002.php & lt; h2> ABSTRACT< / h2><p>Determination of the detector efficiency using volumetric cylindrical sources is very important in various scientific and industrial fields, especially in the field of quantitative analysis. To calculate the absolute activity of any sample, the full-energy peak efficiency (FEPE) of the detector is needed.By applying the efficiency transfer method, the FEPE of the detector would be determined easily without using the standard sources. This approach depends on two main factors. The first one, is the reference efficiency of the reference source, which is determined experimentally, and the second one, is the calculation of the effective solid angle ratio between the sample and the reference source geometries. This work introduces an empirical formula for calculating the second factor for using two different sizes of NaI(Tl) detectors. The validity of this empirical formula was successfully demonstrated by comparing the calculating values with the experimental values.</p> 新方法的差异分析Pretherapeutic tc - 99 m和Intra-therapeutic i - 131吸收在甲状腺显像近年来使用一个参数3 d分析程序 01/02/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jro/jro-aid1001.php & lt; h2> ABSTRACT< / h2><p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Radioiodine therapy is a standard procedure in thyroid autonomy treatment. Discrepancies in the visual comparisons of the scintigraphies prepared for this purpose using Tc-99m-O4- and I-131 have been known for years.In this study a new method is used to calculate and perform a quantitative comparison of both uptakes using subtraction analysis and 3D imaging. The results and their causes are discussed together with practice-relevant conclusions for better clinical results.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods</strong>: The new method was used in 38 patients with thyroid autonomies for the subtraction analysis of standardized pretherapeutic and intratherapeutic scintigraphies. The parametric distribution of activity was calculated absolutely and as a percentage and displayed three-dimensionally. These results were compared with the visual assessment of the different scintigraphies by the experts. Inclusion criteria were pretherapeutic and intratherapeutic hyperthyroidism without medication affecting the thyroid. The time difference between acquiring the scintigraphies was 28 days maximum.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Activity distribution was visually discrepant in 39.5% of cases. 60.5% displayed comparable uptake. The calculated values showed reversed results after applying the new method. The results using our method show a higher rate of calculated discrepancies compared with visual analysis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Accurate functional imaging of the thyroid is next to further aspects very important in establishing the diagnosis and deciding about the therapy activity for thyroid treatment. In combination with clinical symptoms and laboratory values, Tc-99m-O4 - scintigram can be used for an orientated, preliminary assessment of functional disorders of the thyroid. But because of the higher rate of found discrepancies, the solely use of Tc-99m-O4 - scintigram is not always capable for exact and reliable diagnosis. The known reason for this is most probably due to the different biokinetics of both radiopharmaceuticals, which can be imaged more sensitively with this method. Consequently, a scintigram should be performed in the pretherapeutic radioiodine uptake test. Despite higher costs and radiation exposure, alternatively, pretherapeutic use of other diagnostic iodine isotopes like I-123 or -124 should be discussed, because they could overcome the limitation of the different biokinetics. Following this approach the preliminary assessment using Tc-99m-O4 - scintigraphy can be precised and double checked to improve diagnostic confi dence and treatment results for a better outcome of the patients.</p>