植物科学和植物病理学》杂志上 //m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp Heighpubs开放获金博宝app体育取期刊上 en - us Strobilurins:新群杀真菌剂 08/10/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1062.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Strobilurin is a group of natural products and their synthetic analogs have been widely used to control and prevent fungal diseases. Strobilurins were firstly isolated in 1977 from the mycelium of Strobilurus tenacellus, a saprobic Basidiomycete fungus causing wood-rotting on forest trees. This group of pesticides was designed to manage fungal pathogens classes such as Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, and Oomycetes. Also, Strobilurin commercialized included derivatives such as are azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, picoxystrobin, fluoxastrobin, oryzastrobin, dimoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin. This group is a part of the larger group of QoI inhibitors, which act to inhibit the respiratory chain at the level of Complex III. Strobilurins group control an unusually wide array of fungal diseases, included water molds, downy mildews, powdery mildews, leaf spotting and rusts. This group are used on cereals, field crops, fruits, tree nuts, vegetables, turfgrasses and ornamentals. Also, Strobilurins found to enhance the plant growth in some cases.</p> MALDI-MSI大型生物分子的检测方法在植物叶组织 08/06/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1061.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>In this study we describe a method for the detection of biomolecules (in the polypeptide m/z range) directly from the surface of plant leaves by using Mass Spectrometry Imaging. The plant-pathogen interaction between Arabidopsis thaliana and the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris was analyzed by comparing infected and non-infected leaf discs submitted to mass spectrometry. The total surface area of ion distribution was calculated for both samples, revealing 23 ions, out of which 3 showed statistical significance. Although these ions were not identified, the results showed that this approach can be successfully applied for the detection of potential polypeptide biomarkers directly on leaf tissue, which is a major challenge in MALDI-Imaging studies.</p> 目前在植物育种实现零饥饿挑战和克服生物和非生物压力引起的全球气候变化:一个回顾 07/28/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1060.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>According Sustainable Development goals until 2030 we should have zero hunger and undernourished people in the world. But to achieve this goal plant breeders must improve plants in order to produce at least the double than is produced now. This is not a easy pathway because we have only few years, but considering that plant breeding programs normally take several years to produce improved genotypes, also the further improved plants should face with pest, disease and other abiotic factors that are increasing with the current climate changes. In this review we will discuss the situation of hunger in the world and the remaining available land to increase food production, point out effects of biotic and abiotic factors on the food production and present some ways that can be used to fastening plant breeding.</p> 病原体识别和控制引起的乌黑的现货枝孢属ramotenellum,出现在新的容易削皮器官员从啤梨º 06/09/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1059.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>During the 2018 season, superficial dry and firm black spots, where sometimes an aerial mycelium developed, appeared on the rind of easy peeler mandarins causing high economic losses in fresh citrus exports from Per&uacute;. In this work, we have identified the causal agent, a species of Cladosporium not previously reported as a citrus pathogen. The pathogen was isolated from rind lesions of affected fruit and was identified by sequencing as Cladosporium ramotenellum; and fulfilment of Koch postulates was proven. This species was present on the surface of immature fruit in the groves, indicating that the infection is likely initiated before harvest. Cladosporium ramotenellum is resistant to the postharvest fungicides imazalil, pyrimethanil, and thiabendazole, but sensitive to propiconazole, prochloraz, and ortho-phenylphenol. We designed a postharvest industrial treatment to decrease the Cladosporium sp. load on the fruit surface that limited the incidence of infection and reduced the postharvest losses caused by the fungus. Although this species is quite ubiquitous, this is the first description of C. ramotenellum causing decay of citrus fruit, being the symptoms of this disease similar to the ones described previously and caused by Cladosporium cladosporoides in cv. Satsuma mandarins from Japan.</p> 离子转运蛋白在植物及其分子调控机制 05/26/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1058.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>With the global population predicted to grow by at least 25% by 2050, the need for sustainable production of nutritious foods is important for human and environmental health. Recent progress demonstrate that membrane transporters can be used to improve yields of staple crops, increase nutrient content and resistance to key stresses, including salinity, which in turn could expand available arable land. Exposure to salt stress affects plant water relations and creates ionic stress in the form of the cellular accumulation of Na+ and Cl- ions. However, salt stress also impacts heavily on the homeostasis of other ions such as Ca2+, K+, and NO3- and therefore requires insights into how transport and compartmentation of these nutrients are altered during salinity stress. Since Na+&nbsp;interferes with K+&nbsp;homeostasis, maintaining a balanced cytosolic Na+/K+&nbsp;ratio has become a key salinity tolerance mechanism. Achieving this homeostatic balance requires the activity of Na+&nbsp;and K+&nbsp;transporters and/or channels.&nbsp;The aim of this review is to seek answers to this question by examining the role of major ions&nbsp;transporters and channels in ions&nbsp;uptake, translocation and intracellular homeostasis in plants.</p> 硅率和有益微生物在爆炸抑制和旱稻的生产力 04/02/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1057.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2>& lt; p>陆稻种植的主要约束之一是爆炸的疾病(Magnaporthe oryzae),提供减少高达100%的粮食产量使用硅与有益微生物(自然界)可以替代这种疾病的控制,并提供了一个提高生产率的大米谷物。这项工作的目的是研究利率的影响与自然界的硅爆炸抑制和旱稻的籽粒产量。使用的方法是测试在现场条件下进行的,在两个不同的领域:Capivara Palmital农场,在作物生长季节2015/2016。在裂区试验设计方案有四个复制。主要情节是硅受精利率(0、2、4和8吨农业和次要情节是自然界(没有自然界,2-Pseudomonas荧光,3-Burkholderia pyrrocinia, 4-Trichoderma asperellum, 5三个自然界)的混合物。结果表明,使用2吨是硅的混合物的自然界是最好的治疗来控制叶爆炸。此外,从利率,2到6吨是Capivara硅的硅的农场和8吨是在Palmital农场提供粮食产量最高。自然界提供了最高产量的混合物。从这个意义上说,它是认为最好的推荐连接爆炸控制、籽粒产量和减少数量的硅是使用2吨是硅与自然界的混合物。;/ p> 实验研究含氟水的影响,现esculentus var。soh - 198(女士的手指) 03/23/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1056.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2>& lt; p>氟(F)积累的实验研究,现esculentus var。soh - 198及其对经济增长的影响,作物产量进行了盆栽试验。8 F的不同浓度的水用于灌溉范围从2到14 ppm以蒸馏水为控制。电位决定植物的不同部分F的含量是45岁,60岁,120天后播下种子(分别为第一、第二和第三个收获)。在第三个收获意味着植物部分浓度最高的记录有14 ppm F灌溉用水:根9.0638毫克/公斤,5.6896毫克/公斤,4.5348毫克/公斤树叶和3.563毫克/公斤水果。;/ p> 摘要氟化确定小说类的方式 02/19/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1055.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>The demand on non- fumigant nematicides was strongly increased in the last few years, and this interesting in nematicides are due to farmers are needed for safer pesticides and increasing of the regulatory pressure on many of the traditional nematicides. The control of plant parasitic nematodes with synthetic nematicides is the most widespread and preferred method, but not always effective enough. The most of synthetic nematicides especially non-fumigants are high toxic to non-target organisms. Thus, Novel non-fumigant nematicides were appeared as alternatives.</p> <p>The group of trifluoromethyl contains both fluensulfone and fluopyram which are different in mode of action than traditional nematicides as organophosphate and carbamate. Meanwhile, results indicated that fluensulfone and fluopyram are promising nematicides. These new nematicides are very different from traditional nematicides; they are more selective, less toxic and safer to use.</p> 特性和毒性测定刺盘孢属kahawae Gidami隔离,西方埃塞俄比亚 02/05/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1054.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Coffee is one of the most essential crops that generate income for Ethiopian economic growth. However, its production faced with many factors primarily biotic entities. Among these, the fungal pathogen/Colletotrichum kahawae/that induce coffee berry disease (CBD) is the main constraint of coffee production in the country. The pathogen is a very specialized and infects the green berries/fiscal par/which diminishes the income gained from it and disturbs the country&rsquo;s economy in general and the producers in particular. Regarding to the disease level and related factors, little information is available in Western Ethiopia. Hence, this study was initiated to assess the magnitude of CBD in coffee fields, to characterize and evaluate the virulence of C. kahawae isolates from the study areas of Gidami district. Assessment was done in 9 selected kebeles of45 total farms starting from July 2017. The results indicated that CBD was prevalence in all assessed areas with the range of 66 to 86% and 16 to 50% disease incidence and severity index (SI), respectively. The highest CBD intensity was observed in higher altitude with a significant positive correlation between disease incidence (r = 0.61) and severity (r = 0.55). Macro and microscopic characterization results revealed isolates diversity in terms of colony color, density, mycelia growth rate and conidial production. Moreover, mycelia growth rate differs significantly (p &lt; 0.001) in the range between 2.2 to 4.3 mm/24 hrs. Similarly, the sporulation capacity widely ranged from 186.1 to 572.3 spores/ml. This were strongly agreed with the virulence test that revealed significant variation (p &lt; 0.001) among isolates and infection percentage also ranged between 34.8 and 88.7%. In all, the study was not only showed the CBD is very important disease of coffee in the study area but also determines the virulence disparity among isolates. To be honest, the diversity/identity of C. kahawae isolates should be confirmed using more other reliable methods thru including additional sample areas as well.</p> 替代方法转换的辣椒品种 02/02/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1053.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Capsicum (pepper) species have high economic values as vegetable crops and medicinal plants. Most of the Capsicum is known to be recalcitrant to plant regeneration in vitro, and to genetic transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. However, genetic improvement against pathogens requires discovering new pest resistance genes and revealing their functions and mechanism in vitro. The development of improved transformation methods serves this purpose, which needs a binary vector technology carrying the gene of interest to be transferred into the host plants. Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation serves as a useful alternative way for the Capsicum transformation. The A. rhizogenes transformation compared to the<br /> A. tumefaciens transformation has the advantage that the method needs no regeneration step in vitro.</p> <p>Our goal is to obtain a highly efficient transformation system that can be used to study the functions of different genes in Capsicum annuum varieties. Our study&rsquo;s further goal is to validate and describe the candidate gene (Me1) involved in resistance against root-knot nematode species.</p> 花药对赤霉病抗真菌活性epecific植物精油对 10/31/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1052.php <h2>Summary</h2> <p>Fusarium graminearum is one of the most popular phytopathogens of cereals worldwide. F. graminearum is the major causal agent of head blight of wheat and barley. Disease-resistant cultivar development, antagonistic microorganism usage and fungicide treatment are the most common strategies in head blight management strategies. However, these methods have some important disadvantages. The use of plant-derived essential oil against F. graminearum seems to be a promising approach due to the recent researches. This review summarizes the potential use of essential oils to fight against F. graminearum.</p> 壳聚糖的抗病毒和Antinematodal潜力:审查 08/14/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1051.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>For many years, chemical pesticides have been performed to control different pests and diseases and this may be due to their broad spectrum of action, easy of application and the relatively low cost. But these chemicals have environmental risks, thus alternative control agents are needed. Chitosan is one of the novel suggested solutions to reduce the economic losses associated with chemical pesticides. Chitosan is naturally-occurring compound, as well as safe and biodegradable which obtained from certain natural sources. Chitosan have unique properties which help to control viruses, bacteria, fungi, insects, plant nematodes and other pests locally and systemically.</p> 视角的治疗潜力的杂草 06/18/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1050.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Nature gives us a diverse plethora of floral wealth. Weeds have been recognized as invasive plant by most of scholars in today&rsquo;s world with extraordinary travel history. They are considered to be noxious for adjoining plant species and also as economic hazard. Weeds inhabited in almost entire biomes and have capability to survive in harsh conditions of environment thereby become source of inspiration for finding novel phytoconstituents. Weeds play a significant role in absorbing harmful micro pollutants that are affecting ecosystem adversely. There are so many examples like canna lily, bladder wort, coltsfoot, giant buttercup etc. playing crucial part in sustaining environment. Different isolation and characterization approaches like high pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy etc. have also been fetched for obtaining novel constituents from weeds. The main aim of this review is to analyze the therapeutic potential of weeds established in New Zealand and effort to unfold the wide scope of its applications in biological sciences. Upon exploration of various authorized databases available it has been found that weeds not only are the reservoir of complex phytoconstituents exhibiting diverse array of pharmacological activities but also provide potential role in environment phytoremediation. Phytoconstituents reported in weeds have immense potential as a drug targets for different pathological conditions. This review focuses on the literature of therapeutic potential of weeds established in New Zealand and tried to unveil the hidden side of these unwanted plants called weeds.</p> 基因多态性CVPDr在巴厘岛有些植物柑橘 05/07/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1049.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Citrus Vein Phloem Degeneration (CVPD) is the main disease of citrus plants in Indonesia. This disease is caused by Gram negative bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Almost all citrus plants are susceptible to this disease and only a few citrus plants such as seedless lime (Citrus aurantiifolia var. Seedles) and kinkit citrus (Triphacia trifoliate) are tolerant. Both of these citrus plants store DNA fragments of CVPDr which are considered as tolerant factors (841 bp). However, this study found that CVPDr DNA fragments were also found in citrus plants susceptible to CVPD disease. This research aims to study DNA polymorphisms from CVPDr DNA fragments in citrus plants on the island of Bali. The PCR test showed T. trifoliate and C. aurantifolia that are resistant to CVPD and Pylogenically are in the same group as C. nobilis var Buleleng, C. reticulate var. Slayer Buleleng, and C. amblicarpa. On the other hand, citrus plants susceptible to CVPD are in a different group. There are two types of citrus plants not containing CVPDr DNA fragments, namely C. nobilis var. Petang and M. paniculata L. These results indicate that the CVPDr DNA fragment polymorphism is a factor tolerant to CVPD disease.</p> 发病率和西葫芦黄花叶potyvirus疾病控制 05/05/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1048.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (ZYMV) was first identified in northern Italy. It likes other species of the family Potyuiridue. ZYMV has been recorded in many countries since 1981. The efficient intercontinental spread of the virus can be explained by international trading of infected seeds. Since coat protein (CP) analysis has become a primary method for taxonomic assignment of potyviruses the aims were to characterize this genomic region of ZYMV originating from virus-infected cucurbitaceous seedlings. Virus infection in cucurbits is typically associated with mosaic symptoms on leaves and lumpy, distorted fruit. The range of symptoms produced by each virus can overlap and plants are commonly infected by more than one virus at once. The viruses are spread by many species of aphids moving through or within a crop. Control options include: destroying old cucurbit crops as soon as harvesting is completed destroying weeds and volunteer cucurbits, within and around crops as these harbor the viruses and/or the aphids separating new crops from maturing crops as these will have high levels of virus infection avoiding overlapping crops of cucurbits.</p> 自然感染的南瓜果实(Cucurbita瓠果)西葫芦黄花叶potyvirus (ZYMV)在亚历山德里亚省 04/20/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1047.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>An isolate of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) was obtained from naturally infected squash fruits were grown in Abees region, Alexandria governorate. Disease symptoms were Showing mosaic, yellowing and blistering and absis symptoms. The identification was based on the symptoms developed on diagnostic hosts and serological reactions with antisera to cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV), watermelon mosaic potyvirus 2 (WMV-2) and ZYMV. Squash fruit isolate of ZYMV was transmitted by Aphis gossypii, aphis neri and Myzus persicae in non-persistent manner. The virus was purified by ultra-centrifugation and PEG. The purified virus had an ultraviolet absorption spectrum typical of a nucleoprotein with A260/280 and A280/260 being 1.1 and 0.91 respectively. The yield of purified virus was 1.62 mg/100g infected leaf tissues. Specific antiserum was prepared and found to have a titer of 1:409600 as determined by indirect ELISA.</p> 花粉形态在分类和检测掺假的crud药物 04/02/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1046.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Present paper communicates 42 species of angiosperms depicting characteristics of pollen grains as shape, color, exine ornamentations, and type of apertures. Pollen morphological characters are very important in plant identifications in field. Pollen surface features plays significant role in taxonomy and detection of crud drugs. Firsthand information is gathered from field and provided in this research article.</p> 分析影响农户参与西瓜生产要素在一些选定的地方政府地区索科托州,尼日利亚 02/28/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1045.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>The study analyzed the factors influencing participation of farm households&rsquo; in watermelon production in the study areas. Three local government areas out of Sokoto state were purposively selected. Questionnaire was used to collect data. Multistage of sampling techniques were used to arrive at the sample size of 181 farm households&rsquo; for the study. Likert scale is used to analyze the level of participation of farm households&rsquo;, frequency and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that (55.8%) of the farm households are within the ages of 25-30 years, majority (96.7%) are male It shows that majority (64.0%) of the farm households participated in watermelon production as a result of higher income generated. Multiple regression analysis result revealed significant relationships between farm household&rsquo;s participation in watermelon production and their socio-economic characteristics at p &lt; 0.05. The constraints faced by the farm households are storage technology and improved agricultural inputs. Most (63.5%) of the farm households believed that provision of subsidized agricultural inputs and market accessibility are forms of assistance that will encourages farm households to partake in watermelon production. It is recommended that government and donor agencies should encourage farm households&rsquo; by providing them with the modern agricultural inputs so as to influence them to participate fully into watermelon production irrespective of their Socio-economic differences.</p> 马铃薯Y病毒Potyvirus的重要性 02/19/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1044.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Potato virus Y potyvirus (PVY) is one of the most important aphid transmitted viral pathogen of potato worldwide. PVY affects potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.), which is an important economic crop. PVY infection with potato viruses usually causing severe economic damage affecting both tubers quality and trade. PVY can degrease the production of certified seed and also crops grown for processing or fresh market. Potato is considered as one of the most economically important solanaceous crops cultivated in different regions that (PVY) has been studied in many parts of the world. Wide host plant range is a characteristic of viruses belonging to the Potyviridae. 495 species in 72 genera of 31 families were reported to be infected by PVY. Under field conditions, potato plants are subjected to attack by many viruses. The most cited virus could affect potato in the world is PVY. It has been long recognized as a threat to potato cultivation. Several studies carried out and reported that PVY is the most important virus infecting potato in different localities. Our review article is showed that PVY are the most frequently detected viruses in potato.</p> 体外和预防领域评估潜在的生物控制剂和合成杀菌剂控制Clarireedia jacksonii sp. 11月。 02/06/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1043.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Clarireedia jacksonii sp. nov. Formerly Sclerotinia homoeocarpa F.T. Bennett, the causal agent of dollar spot (DS), is the most destructive pathogen in turfgrass. Symptoms appear as circular patches 10-40 mm in diameter with small tan lesions surrounded by a darker band, sometimes presenting an hour glass appearance. A multi-year study was initiated with the objective of determining the efficacy of biological control agents (BCA) and tank mixes of BCA&rsquo;s and synthetic fungicides on DS control. Nutrient source was also evaluated to determine any interaction with the BCA&rsquo;s and tank mixes. In vitro studies evaluated the efficacy of synthetic and BCA&rsquo;s for C. jacksonii control. Quarter strength potato dextrose agar was amended with &frac14;, &frac12; and full labeled rates of various products. Chlorothalonil at all rates provided greatest (&gt; 90%) control of C. jacksonii for study duration. Biological control agents provided best efficacy at &frac14; and &frac12; label rates. Streptomyces griseoviridis provided least efficacy and may have exacerbated formation of C. jacksonii. Preventative field evaluations for synthetic and BCA&rsquo;s provided different results between two study years. In Year 1, all treatments had &lt; 15% disease severity for the duration of the study. In year 2, disease pressure was extremely elevated. Synthetic program 1, centered on azoxystrobin + propiconazole applications and conventional fertility sources, provided best results with &lt; 5% disease severity for the duration of the study. Reduced synthetic program 1, and synthetic program 2 followed closely with &lt; 10% disease severity. Reduced synthetic programs were based on monthly applications of either chlorothalonil or pyraclostrobin every 30 day, alternated with biofungicide applications. Synthetic program 2 utilized rotation applications of pyraclostrobin and chlorothalonil every 14 days. Organic programs, utilizing only biofungicides and organic fertility sources, provided the least amount of control and exceeded the 15% threshold by the second month of the evaluation period.</p> 侧耳属的潜力sajor-caju堆肥控制有隐姓埋名的女人和改善营养状况的番茄植物 12/30/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1042.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>The potential of spent compost of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju cultivated on rice (MCR) or wheat straws (MCW) was evaluated against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita on tomato plants under field conditions during two successive seasons (2016 and 2017). The field trial was carried out in a clay loam soil naturally infested with M. incognita at a private farm, Kafr El-Sheikh governorate, Egypt. Results revealed that all the tested treatments greatly suppressed final populations (Pf), numbers of galls and egg masses of M. incognita during both seasons as compared to the untreated treatment. The highest percentages of Pf&nbsp; reductions (81.1% - 87%) and (80.2% - 86.2%) were achieved with the chemical nematicide, Vydate&reg; 10 G and treatments of (MCR and MCW) at application rate of 1200 g/m2 in the 1st and 2nd seasons, respectively. Moreover, the fruit yield during both seasons was increased significantly with all the applied treatments, especially treatment of MCW at application rate of 1200 g/m2. Additionally, chemical fruit properties were markedly improved with MCR and MCW treatments. Also, treatments of MCR and MCW achieved the highest percentages of nitrogen and phosphorus contents. Generally, the results indicated that spent compost obtained after cultivation of <em>P. sajor-caju</em> has a nematicidal potential against <em>M. incognita</em>, also improved nutritional status and increased tomato yield.</p> 阿维菌素的杀线虫的效果、硼、壳聚糖、过氧化氢和苏云金杆菌对柑桔线虫在瓦伦西亚橘子树 12/12/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1041.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>The nematicidal efficacy of abamectin, boron, chitosan, hydrogen peroxide, Bacillus thuringiensis and oxamyl 24% SL against citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans were examined on Valencia orange trees under field condition for two successive seasons (2017 and 2018). The experiment was conducted in a Valencia orange orchard infested with citrus nematode at Nubaria, El-Behera governorate, Egypt. The obtained results showed that all the tested treatments reduced nematode final population (Pf) and reproduction factor (Rf) compared with that obtained from the untreated trees. The highest percentages of Pf reductions (74.5-83.4 %) and (70%-82%) were recorded with oxamyl, boron, abamectin, chitosan and H2O2 in the 1st and the 2nd tested seasons, respectively. Whereas, B. thuringiensis had the least nematode Pf reduction with 60.7 and 55.8% in the 1st and 2nd seasons, respectively. Additionally, all treatments significantly improved orange yield (30.9-83.2% increase), physical fruit parameters and orange juice properties. The highest orange yield increase (83.2%) was recorded with boron treatment followed by oxamyl (70.3%). Also, boron increased total soluble solids (TSS) by 13.6%, volume of orange juice (36.4%) and vitamin C (19.7%) and decreased juice acidity (A) by (16.7%). It is concluded that abamectin, boron and the other tested compounds have potential as non-chemical control strategy tools in managing the citrus nematode. These bioagents reduced the amount of traditional chemical nematicides and are considered to be environmentally safe.</p> 肾功能的影响FDS,皂素隔绝Filicium decipiens种子:生化和组织病理学研究 10/31/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1040.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Physicochemical and pharmacological studies indicated that Filicium decipiens seeds contained various specialized metabolites, including saponins. The aim of this work is to reveal the nephrotoxicity of FDS, a saponin isolated from Filicium decipiens seeds on male Wistar rats histopathological and biochemical parameters. Rats were submitted to oral ingestion of FDS (6.0 mg/kg) and crude extract (120.0 mg/kg) and were observed high levels of urea and creatinine in blood analyses of all animals followed by an acute renal failure by glomerular retraction. In the present study, FDS and crude extract when administered in Wistar rats induced an increase of serum levels of Urea and Creatinine, biochemical markers of kidney function. Table 1 shows Urea concentration at Test group with FDS (54.3 &plusmn; 1.80 mg/ml) and Test group with crude extract (49.7 &plusmn; 2.00 mg/ml), were 47% and 34.7% higher, respectively, when compared to control group (36.9 &plusmn; 2.00 mg/ml), and Creatinine at the test group with FDS (2.1 &plusmn; 0.03 mg/ml) and test group with crude extract (1.6 &plusmn; 0.09 mg/ml) presented a value 3.5 and 2.8 times higher, respectively, than control (0.6 &plusmn; 0.08 mg/ml). Based on these results, our data demonstrate a significant effect in renal function of rats treated with F. decipiens saponin.</p> 三个现代血清学方法检测植物病毒 10/10/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1039.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>The use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of plant viruses is well documented. It proved to be a very valuable detection tools for the plant viruses. The efficiency of the ELISA technique was for practical purpose independent of the ratio of antibodies to antigen. This avoids the necessity of making specific enzyme conjugates for each antigen to be tested and eliminates the extreme specificity, thus allowing for quantitative evaluation of strain relationships. The advantages of indirect ELISA are sample. It needs only to be macerated and added to the plate. The crude antiserum could be used, although it should be cross absorbed before to prevent spurious host reaction. Single commercially available second antibody conjugate is utilized, thus eliminating the problems of preparing and storing many different conjugated antisera. Blotting technique has become widely used for specific identification of nucleic acid and proteins. This dot assay was modified to detect protein by spotting the antigen on a nitrocellulose membrane and incubating the membrane in test antibody followed by incubation in peroxidase-conjugated second antibody to the first antibody, and by development in 4-chloro-1-naphthol. The above procedure termed dot blot immunobinding assay (DBIA). The technique of tissue blotting on nitrocellulose membrane was described for detection of plant viruses in infected plants. Tissue blots were made by pressing with a firm and gentile force, the freshly cut tissue surface on nitrocellulose membranes. The possibility of using both sides of the nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) by tissue blot immuno assay (TBIA) for the detection plant viruses. In an effort to reduce the cost of virus assays, different types of regular paper were evaluated as possible replacements for the commonly used nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) as the solid phase in the tissue-blot immunoassay (TBIA) were&nbsp; used. Comparisons between different serological methods were demonstrated by many investigators Dot immunobinding was eight times more sensitive for detection of PVX and four times more sensitive for detection of PVS and PVY than DAS-ELISA.</p> 全面的表型鉴定和遗传区别不同的牛筋草(牛筋面l . Gaertn) 10/04/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1038.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Goosegrass (Eleusine indica L. Gaertn.) is a troublesome weed in turfgrass systems throughout the world. The development of herbicide resistant ecotypes has occurred to multiple modes of action. Goosegrass is a prolific seed producer (~50,000 per plant), fast growing and diverse weed. Such growing attributes make it essential to have a better understanding of the genetic diversity of various ecotypes. The objectives of this study were to determine if morphologically distinct goosegrass ecotypes collected in Florida were phenotypically distinct and genetically different. Phenotypically, the goosegrass ecotypes can be classified as follows; dwarf, intermediate 1 (int_I), intermediate 2 (int_II) and wild. The dwarf had the least seedheads followed by the wild ecotype; 5 and 17 respectively, while int_I and int_II had highest number of seedheads; 22 and 34 respectively. The dwarf ecotype had lowest height of 6 cm and the wild ecotype had highest height of 36 cm. Dwarf and int_II ecotypes had shortest internode length of 0.2 cm and 1 cm, respectively, while the wild ecotype had longest internode length of 7 cm. The dwarf ecotype had lowest number of racemes per plant of 1, while the wild ecotype had highest number of racemes per plant of 7. Total biomass was lowest for the dwarf and int_II ecotype; 0.7 g and 1.5 g, respectively, and total biomass was highest for the wild ecotype at 5 g. Gene sequencing of two rice (Oryza) gene sequences (accession AP014964 (gene A) and AP014965 (gene B)) and subsequent phylogenetic analysis suggest the ecotypes are genetically different. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of interest were discovered indicating allelic differences between ecotypes.</p> 血清学和分子特性的两个种子生豇豆花叶Comovirus隔离影响豇豆植物(豇豆属unguiculata l .)在埃及北部 10/01/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1037.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Cowpea plants naturally infected with cowpea mosaic comovirus (CPMV) showed different mosaic, mottle, dwarfing, and vain clearing symptoms. Diseased plants were ollected from certain locations of Alexandria and El-Beheira governorates during the growing seasons from 2011 to 2012. CPMV was detected in infected sap at 8 to 24 days after inoculation by DBIA, indirect ELISA and tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA). Chlorotic local lesions were observed on Chenopodium amaranticolor in infectivity test. By using indirect ELISA and DBIA, CPMV were detected in infected plant sap of serial dilutions up to 1: 400. The incidence of CPMV in 21 day old cowpea seedlings grown from infected seeds was determined by ELISA and positive detection of virus antigen reached 65%. Nitrocellulose membrane and canson paper could be used as solid carriers in TBIA and DBIA for detection of CPMV in infected plant tissues. Results revealed that both faces of nitrocellulose membrane and canson paper could be used as solid carriers in TBIA for detection of CPMV in infected plant tissues. According to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of CPMV infected plant; the amplified product was approximately 800bp of partial coat protein gene. The nucleotide sequences accession number were LN606585 and LN606586. The phylogenetic tree was generated using sequences of CPMV isolates with the other CPMV records from GenBank.</p> Avermectins:有前途的解决方案来控制植物寄生线虫 09/13/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1036.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Abamectin and emamectin are members of avermectin family which categorized as very effective but in the same time are toxic naturally. Most of products in this family are utilized as pharmaceuticals in both humans &amp; animals and for crop protection.Despite avermectins are having complex chemical structures, but they are produced via synthesis in large scales for commercial use. Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) cause severe damages in all parts of their host plants, in addition to yield losses. The available strategies to control PPN include use of insecticides/nematicides but these have proved detrimental to environment and human health. Therefore, this scenario gave an opportunity for the utilization of avermectins (abamectin and emamectin) to control plant parasitic nematodes because of their chemical and biological properties, as well as relative safety. Avermectins have short half-lives and their residues can be eliminated easily through different food processing methods. Both abamectin and emamectin were very effective nematicides which proved capability of reducing PPNs significantly in various crops.</p> 非洲桃花心木效果Senegalensis树皮和石油在收获后真菌剂的花生种子腐烂Adamawa状态,尼日利亚 08/02/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1035.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Standardized method of seed treatment is of prime importance in the production of groundnut. The study was to carry out control trial using bark extract (aqueous and ethanol) and oil (seed) of mahogany (Khaya senegalensis) on seven (7) isolated fungi from two groundnut varieties (peruvian and valencia).The result shows that both mahogany bark and seed extracts are capable of inhibiting mycelial growth of all the isolates. There was no significant variation between the aqueous and ethanol bark extracts in-vitro, however the in-vivo test shows a significant difference between the aqueous and the ethanol bark extract in which the ethanol extract reduced growth of the pathogens more than the aqueous. For all the pathogens except Rhizopus stolonifer there was no growth between 50% to 100% concentration of the Khaya senegalensis oil in-vitro, however in-vivo control at 50% produced scanty to moderate growth for all the pathogens except Rhizopus stolonifer on peruvian, while there was full coverage on the seeds of valencia variety with Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer having total coverage though Pseudaiiescheria boydii and Cylindrocarpon lichenicola were effectively inhibited and showed no growth at the 50% and 100%. Further research to focus on the quantifying the chemical constituents and formulation are suggested.</p> 花青素含量测定两种芙蓉Sabdariffa从雪兰莪州,马来西亚用色谱法和光谱法 07/30/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1034.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>The calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa have been used by many communities as herbal tea. Their anthocyanin contents have been reported as the key component in anti-obesity studies. This present work reported results of anthocyanin content of calyces in two varieties of H. sabdariffa collected from Sabak Bernam, Selangor, Malaysia.The samples have been authenticated in the Herbarium, Institute of Bioscience, University Putra Malaysia prior to the study. The samples were processed and the ground dry raw material and its aqueous extract were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Two-Dimensional Infrared (2DIR). The short hybrid calyces (FT11-15A) raw material spectrum showed more than 80% similarity with long wild variety calyces (FT11-15B) when using &ldquo;Compare&rdquo; in analysis. The differences of both samples were obviously shown in their aqueous extract spectra. The peak at 1672 cm-1 and 841 cm-1 showed that tri-substituted double bond in FT11-15B aqueous extract was not present in FT11-15A aqueous extract spectra, whereby a double peak was assigned at 1221 cm-1 referred to anti symmetry stretching of aromatic and vinyl =C-O-C- with other =C-O- and 1192 cm-1 is assigned In-plane &delta; C-H in FT11-15A aqueous extract. The peak at 1071 cm-1 assigned as bonding C-H in plane bending of phenyl of both samples was the only peak comparable with standard delphinidin and cyanidin which are used for qualification and quantification of sample content. Aqueous extract spectra of both samples showed higher number of peaks detected compared with raw material spectra, which was attributed to the higher solubility of anthocyanins in water. The 2DIR correlation spectroscopy is advantageous in enhancing the qualitative analysis of herbal products. The anthocyanin content in both varieties of H. sabdariffa in descending amount is delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside (DS), cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside (CS), delphenidin-3-O-glucoside (DG) and lastly cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (CG). FT11-15A has more content of DS and DG of raw material and CG of water extract plus TFA than FT11-15B, whereby, FT11-15B has more content of CS, CG of raw material and DS, DG, CS of water extract plus TFA than FT11-15A.</p> 因果代理收获后腐烂的南瓜(Cucurbita瓠果l .)及其控制在香港使用地方实践,Adamawa状态 07/19/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1033.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2>& lt; p>南瓜(Cucurbita瓠果)生长在世界各地以各种理由从农业到商业和装饰性的销售。病原体引起的腐烂南瓜世界上包括真菌、细菌和病毒。该研究旨在确定真菌病原体的南瓜腐烂在存储、以及控制措施的疾病使用木灰,芒果叶和水稻谷壳。三百六十六(366)水果的南瓜在佩拉学习,戈雅和Kulinyi地区的地方政府区域Adamawa状态。(水果)随机购买的样品。所有的地区访问,Kulinyi疾病样本的比例最高(43.82%),最少的是盖亚地区为21.35%。马铃薯葡萄糖琼脂(PDA)是用于病原体的隔离和这些给腐皮镰刀菌黑曲霉、黄曲霉、疫霉capsici。所有的真菌分离株表现出不同程度的致病性影响南瓜果实。病原体容易治疗体内和体外实验均与木灰和芒果叶控制试验p,勒;0.05。 Inhibition improved with increased in concentration of the wood ash and mango leaf. Rice chaff treatment equally proved worthwhile with significant inhibition compared to the control at p &le; 0.05.</p> 克隆和表征Pseudo-Response监管机构7 (PRR7)从紫花苜蓿基因参与调节生物钟 07/16/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1032.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>The circadian clock is an endogenous molecular oscillator with a period of about 24 hours, which regulates the physiology and developmental processes of almost all higher plants. Pseudo-response regulators (PRRs) are an important part of the central clock oscillator, together with other clock genes, constituting interlinked transcriptional feedback loops, which partly influence plant growth and development.In this study, a circadian clock-related gene MsPRR7 was cloned from Medicago sativa (alfalfa) by homologous cloning. The full length MsPRR7 gene was 2648 bp in length, with an open reading frame of 2385 bp encoding a protein of 795amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the MsPRR7 was closely related to PRR7 from the PRR family of Arabidopsis thaliana. Subcellular localization analysis found that MsPRR7 was located in the nucleus. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that expression of MsPRR7 gene transcripts in leaves was affected by circadian rhythms, and that its expression level increased with an extension of illumination time, reaching a peak around 8&ndash;10 hours. These results will provide the experimental basis for further study of the regulation of PRR family genes in alfalfa.</p> 无控制的蜜环菌侵染的碧桃 07/04/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1031.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Peaches, <em>Prunus persica</em> were planted as grafted saplings in an avocado orchard previously infested with <em>Armillaria mellea </em>(Vahl) P.Kumm. Trees were planted in large or small holes with or without fresh yardwaste chips added as an amendment and with or without a Trichoderma biocontrol product sprayed into the hole. Trees were monitored for six years -- growth and mortality was tabulated.Six years later 40% of the trees had died from the disease. Trees planted in a large hole were more likely to survive than in a smaller hole (P=0.07) and trees in large holes with fresh organic matter added were the most likely to survive (P=0.04). Trichoderma sprays in the planting hole did not increase survival rates. While growth was initially retarded by adding fresh yardwaste to the hole, in later years none of the treatments affected growth rates.</p> 评估湾站规模的树(Persea spp)。在北佛罗里达接触月桂枯萎病后保存 06/04/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1030.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Although laurel wilt disease was first reported in the United States in 2002 from redbay trees (<em>Persea borbonia</em>) around Savannah, Georgia it has rapidly spread throughout the southeastern coastal plain including Georgia and Florida. In the current study, transects were used to assess the spread and impact of the disease on two native bay trees redbay (<em>P. borbonia</em>) and swampbay (<em>P. palustris)</em> from north Florida in a semi-naturalized ecological preserve.&nbsp;Although tree size and mortality rates have been reported previously, this study provides the first size-based static life tables for both species. While a significantly higher percent (76%) of swampbay trees exhibited signs of laurel wilt disease compared to redbay trees (62%); redbay had more of its canopy damaged by the disease (41% vs. 32% for redbay vs. swampbay respectively); this resulted in a significantly smaller stem diameter for P. borbonia compared to swampbay, both species are experiencing significant declines due to the disease. Both species exhibited a Type III survivorship curve in which the vast majority of individuals were in the smallest size class (average stem diameter was only 2.5 and 3.6 cm for redbay and swampbay respectively). Although traditionally, population age (or size) structure that is heavily biased toward younger or smaller size classes suggests that the population is likely to expand in the future, for these bay trees high mortality rate due to beetle/fungal infestation of larger size classes is responsible for this trend; the smallest size classes are largely free from beetle infestation and laurel wilt disease because the stem diameter is likely insufficient to support beetle development. Results from this study suggest that swampbay is also highly susceptible to laurel wilt disease and its populations are likely to exhibit a similar (albeit slower) decline in Florida&rsquo;s wetland and mesic ecosystems.</p> 异步开花无性系种子园-另类的管理的有效策略 05/15/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1029.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Tropical forests have long been of interest to biologists because of their high species diversity and their complicated patterns of community organization. The recent ecological studies which have demonstrated that tropical trees are diverse in their reproductive biology and dynamic population structure.Asynchronous flowering among the clones in a clonal seed orchard is an inherent problem resulting in poor seed and fruit set in them. These results in the complete defeat of the prime objective of establishment of clonal seed orchards (CSOs) i.e. abundant quality seed production poor flowering and asynchronous flowering between the clones are a major bottleneck in higher seed set in these clonal seed orchards across the country. Asynchrony found between clones may be attributed to the origin of clones, which are collected from different zonal populations as revealed by isoenzyme and DNA markers studies. This article reviews the work done in CSOs across the world and suggests an alternate strategy in designing the clonal seed orchards of the future.</p> 稳定候选人参考基因测定黄瓜植物从梅洛尼疫病受到压力 04/15/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1028.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Stable reference genes are indispensable for ensuring the fidelity of determined gene expression levels. However, the expression levels of reference genes are unable to remain constant under all possible experimental conditions. Therefore, the stability determination of reference genes is necessary in an experimental system set.In the preset study, the stability of nine cucumber candidate reference genes (CsACT, CsUBQ, CsEF1&alpha;, CsCYP, Cs&alpha;TU, CsCACS, CsTIP41, CsYSL8 and CsHEL) subjected to stresses from Phytophthora melonis(P. melonis) were determined using four different analysis methods, including Delta Ct, BestKeeper, NormFinder and GeNorm. The study results revealed that CsUBQ and CsCYP were the most stable genes suitable as internal control in cucumber plants under attack by P. melonis condition.</p> 隔离和生化特征的植物生长促进(PGP)的根际细菌殖民微软目前在苗期作物 04/28/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1027.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>The use of novel PGPR as bio inoculant is an alternative sustainable agricultural practice to improve soil health, grain quality, increase crop productivity, and conserve biodiversity. The aim of this study is to isolate, and characterized PGP bacteria colonizing tef rhizosphere during the seedling stage.&nbsp;For this concern, 426 samples of tef (Eragrostis tef) rhizosphere soils and roots were collected from East Shewa zone, Oromia regional state. 200 morphologically different bacterial pure colonies were isolated and screened for their PGP traits and biocontrol properties. Among these 40.5% isolates were positive for phosphate solubilization. 36% were positive for IAA production, 4.5% were positive for ammonia production, 19 % were positive for (EXPS), 15.5% were positive for protease production, 12.5% were positive for HCN productions, 9.5 % were positive for cellulase production, 4% were positive for amylase production, 3.5% were positive for chitinase production. For abiotic stress tolerance test, all of the isolates were grown well at 20oc and 30oc and neutral pH, 27% isolates were grown well at 4oc, 25.5% grew at 40oc, 25.5% were grown well on pH-9 and pH-11, 23.5% were tolerated pH-5, 3.5% grew at 50oc and 60oc, 13.5% were grown well on 5% NaCl (w/v), 3.5% were grown well on 10 and 15% NaCl (w/v), which indicated these isolates can survive in some extreme conditions. Totally 15 bacterial species having PGP traits, biocontrol properties, and abiotic stress tolerance ability were identified using the Biolog bacterial identification system. Among these, the majority of the identified PGPR have utilized carbohydrate, carboxylic acid, and amino acid, which are the main components of plant root exudates. The above results indicated that thus PGPR can be used as biofertilizers as well as biocontrol agents to replace agrochemicals to improve crop productivity. Hence, these species can be further formulated and used for greenhouse and field applications.</p> 评价冷反应冬青属paraguariensis 03/12/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1026.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p><em>Ilex paraguariensis</em>, also known as &lsquo;Yerba mate&rsquo;, occurs naturally in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay and is also grown in these countries with different intensities. Leaves and branches of this plant are used in the preparation of a stimulant beverage that beside social importance has notorious health impact.However, the cultivated herbs present low productivity, due to deficiencies in cultivation and harvesting techniques, as well as due to the abiotic stresses that this species is subject to. The discovery and characterization of cold response mechanisms in plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana, began research in order to unravel the physiological and molecular mechanisms in response to cold in other plant species. In this work, we studied the physiological response observed in Ilex paraguariensis plants submitted to low temperatures (0&deg;C), with or without a pre-moderate acclimatization treatment period of (8&deg;C).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Our results suggest the existence of an acclimation response in Ilex paraguariensis, similar to that described in other species of the same temperature.</p> 抗病毒RNAi植物防御和抑制由病毒介导的 01/25/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1025.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>The age-old battle between plants and viruses has many twists and turns. Plants acquired the RNAi factors to checkmate the viruses and the viruses encode VSRs to defeat RNAi for their own survival. Plants designed mechanisms to neutralize the toxic effects of VSRs and the viruses, in their turn, use host microRNAs to strengthen their infection processes.The infightings between these two entities will take different shapes with prolonged evolution and accordingly the researchers will dig these novel forms of duels not only to throw lights in the involved mechanisms but also to manipulate various antiviral strategies. Some of the research courses that might come up in the immediate future are discussed.</p> 引物对大米(栽培稻l .)酸性亚硫酸盐测序研究 11/06/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1024.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Many agriculturally important properties such as heterosis, inbreeding depression, phenotypic plasticity, and resistance for biotic and abiotic stresses are thought to be affected with epigenetic components.New discoveries related with epigenetics are likely to have a major impact on strategies for crop improvement in rice breeding. However, assessing the contribution of epigenetics to heritable variation in plant species still poses major challenges. Methylation of cytosine in DNA is one of the most important epigenetic mechanisms in plants. DNA methylation not only plays significant roles in the regulation of gene activity, but also it is related with genomic integrity. Although most of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies do not require the use of target specific primer pairs to identify and study DNA cytosine methylation, validation studies of NGS uses selective primer pairs. Bisulfite sequencing technique is a gold method for DNA cytosine methylation studies. However, bisulfite sequencing requires the development of bisulfite primer pairs to selectively study DNA sequences of interest. In this study 9 bisulfite specific primer pairs were identified and validated. These primer pairs successfully amplified bisulfite converted and unconverted genomic DNA extracted from radicle and plumule of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings. Results of the present study clearly revealed the occurrence of CG, CHG and CHH (H stands for C. T or A nucleotides) contents in studied DNA sequence targets were different indicating potential role of DNA cytosine methylation in these genes. Primer pairs reported in this study could be used to detect DNA methylation which is one of the most important epigenetic mechanisms affecting the development, differentiation or the response to biotic and abiotic stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.).</p> 使用精油作为新的食品防腐剂(例:桉树茅和桉树crebra) 11/02/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1023.php 这项研究计划的研究防腐剂的代理需要确保食品生产安全、未损坏的;工作进行评估从两种桉树精油的功效,桉树茅和桉树crebra食品防腐剂;运行这个实验肉桉树叶从Ruhande植物园收集森林被提交给hydrodistillation,收益率(量)的0.34%和0.38桉茅和桉树crebra得到,分别。菜豆、高粱condatum,煮熟的番薯甘薯(红薯)和面包样品的食物用来评估其防腐效果。Acanthoscelides obtectus和Stophilus oryzae被用作菜豆和高粱condatum害虫。面包和煮熟的番薯甘薯,根霉nigricans用于评估这两种精油的功效,以抑制其增长;结果显示,那些精油可以作为杀虫剂在菜豆和高粱condatum的存储。从桉树精油茅保护这两个食物对害虫4和9天的时间,而分别从桉树精油crebra保护他们6和11天的时间,分别。 研究进展的黄曲霉素生物合成基因簇的结构基因特征 10/31/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1022.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Aflatoxins, produced by <em>Aspergillus</em> spp., are strongly toxic and carcinogenic fungal secondary metabolites. Aflatoxin biosynthesis is a complex process and involves at least 30 genes clustered within an approximately 75 kB gene cluster.In this paper, we reviewed current status of the researches on the characterized structural genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis and their roles in aflatoxin-producing fungi, especially in A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which will improve our understanding of the mechanism of aflatoxin biosynthesis and regulation and provide reference for further study.</p> 芽孢杆菌amyloliquefaciens作为植物生长促进细菌的互动草盐Distichlis palmeri(维西)在田间条件下,索诺拉沙漠,墨西哥 10/02/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1021.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>The halophyte Distichlis palmeri (Vasey) is a plant resource with high potential to be harvested in the coastal areas of northwestern Mexico; enlarge the knowledge and domestication for its incursion into the agricultural sector, plays an important role for arid areas with saline intrusion problems.&nbsp;However, its productivity depends on the supplementary supply of nitrogen, as well as other essential macro and micronutrients. The microorganisms considered beneficial are an alternative to chemical fertilization, highlighting those Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB). In the present study, the inoculation of the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (B.a.) as a halobacterium PGPB was evaluated to know the response in seeds of Distichlis spicatai obtained from natural population from colorado river in Delta north of the Gulf of California. Wild seed was collected and germinated previously inoculated with B. a., and sowed in germinated beds. Later, seedlings were planted under field and salinity conditions in the coast of Hermosillo, Sonora. Three treatments were examined (T1: B.a., T2: Chemical fertilization, T3: Negative control), with four repetitions each treatment. Each repetition consisted of experimental plots of 5 x 5 m, with a separation of 1 m between them. The harvest was carried out 600 days after sowing. The results indicate that treatments inoculated with halobacteria B.a., showed significant results in crude protein, non-protein nitrogen, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber, as well as spike length and number of seeds. The results obtained suggests the feasibility of biofertilizers where biomass and seed production are significant compared to non-inoculated controls.</p> 生活史策略的装甲,Aulacaspis alisiana(半翅类:介壳虫总科:Diaspididae)在日本银树Neolitsea sericea(提单)Koidz。在日本福冈(樟科) 08/29/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1020.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>The armored scale Aulacaspis alisiana, is a serious invasive pest of the Japanese silver tree, Neolitsea sericea, causing serious damage to the tree in Japan. However there are currently no control approaches available for it, complicated by shortage of information on the pest.We studied life history strategies of A. alisiana on N. sericea in Fukuoka Prefecture with a view to providing a basis for formulating sustainable control based on an understanding of the behavior of the pest and potential role of its natural enemies. We established that A. alisiana had three overlapped generations in Fukuoka, with generation times ranging between 65 and 71 days. The adults were relatively fecund, with each female producing between 60 and 67 eggs, with high hatchability, &gt;78%. The pest settled on the lower side of leaves, and although it generally preferred younger leaves, it did not attack newly emerged leaves. Natural enemy groups comprising ants, spiders and beetles (coccinelids) played an important role in regulation of the pest population, with natural mortality of about 30%. They could thus form a critical component of an integrated management approach for the pest in Fukuoka.</p> 检测Clavibacter michiganensis无性系种群。michiganensis锡那罗亚番茄和辣椒种子和农业地区,墨西哥 06/08/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1019.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Phytosanitary inspectors play an important role in diagnosing diseases in foreign plant material. However, some deficiencies have been detected in the detectionc ausing the entrance of many microorganisms.Therefore, it was of great interest to detect the presence of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) in foreign tomato and chili seed in the agricultural area of Sinaloa, Mexico, besides the growth and cell density of Cmm was evaluated in different selective media under continuous illumination and photoperiod. The results indicate that seeed of 35 varieties of tomatoes was collected; while for Chili seed were 18. This study was supported by farmers (225) which represent 79% of all growers and 32 business engaged in the sale of agro-supplies, provided seeds of varieties and hybrids. Those growers are from six areas (Culiacan, El Tamarindo, Navolato, Culiacan, El dorado and Badiraguato). For detection of Cmm in tomato seed, from 35, only four was variability considering Immunochromatography and ELISA techniques; however, considering chemical and physiological test, the result was negative. Similar results were in 18 varietes of chili seed, where eight showed variability to detect Cmm, and negative by chemical and physiological test. According to the growth and cell density of Cmm, the optimal medium was YDC under pH stable and continuous light conditions. It is recommended to consider the fusion of diagnostic techniques in the emission of a result.</p> 控制植物病原微生物收获后的番茄(Lycopersicon esculentum轧机)。使用柑橘提取物 03/30/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1018.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Diseases are a major cause of post-harvest losses depending on season, region and management practices. Chemical control is the most used but with serious consequences for human health and the environment. This forces us to carry out more exhaustive studies on botanical products.The general objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of citrus extracts for the control of pathogens that cause post-harvest diseases in tomato fruit. The product to be evaluated is of botanical origin from citrus extracts. Doses were evaluated (0, 666, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000 ppm). The treatments were located at a temperature of 25&deg;C&plusmn;2 and 45% relative humidity (rH). The design used corresponded to a completely random design. The least significant difference was estimated by Tukey Multiple Range test at P=0.05. The statistical tests were performed through the SAS computer program. The results indicate that the pathogens detected and identified correspond to Alternaria tenuissima; Botrytis cinerea; Cladosporium fulvum; Colletotrichum coccodes; Fusarium oxysporum; Geotrichum candidum; Rhizopus stolonifer and Stemphylium macrosporoideum. Our conclusion is that the efficient doses correspond to 666, 2000 and 8000 ppm. With the application of citrus extracts, the damage percentage of tomato fruit was reduced in relation to the control treatments. Based on the results with the application of citrus extracts, the shelf life of the tomato was lengthened.</p> 药理作用的Nephrolepis exaltata l .(蕨类)水提物在一个生产模型(Nauphoeta灰质) 03/27/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1017.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>In this work we used semi-isolated heart of the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea for the investigation of the pharmacological effects of extracts (aqueous, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4 and 1:8) from Nephrolepis exaltata L. leaves, a popular ornamental fern considered to be safe.The use of insects in experimental studies has grown due to the easy handling, proliferation/growing assuring its rapid obtention, and absence of ethical issues. An aqueous extract 0.2 % was obtained after maceration of 1 g N. exaltata leaves powder with 20 mL of distilled water (1:20). Diluted extracts in water were obtained to have the following proportion 1:1, 1:2, 1:4 and 1:8. Experiments (n=4) consisted of 200 &micro;L addition onto semi-isolated heart preparation of N. cinerea with concomitant heart beating counting. Aqueous, 1:1 and 1:2 extracts paralyzed completely the heart beatings of cockroachs (p&lt;0.05 compared to saline control), but not 1:4 or 1:8, which showed only a slight decline (p&gt;0.05 compared to saline control). A preliminary thin layer chromatography showed the presence of unidentified terpenoid in aqueous extract of N. exaltata. These pharmacological findings of N. exaltata can be exploited for future use as insecticide or as dose-dependently cholinergic agent.</p> 在拟南芥的角色HECT泛素蛋白连接酶 03/20/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1016.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Ubiquitination is a kind of posttranslational modification of proteins in eukaryotes, and it plays an important role in the growth and development of organisms. The ubiquitination of proteins is a cascade enzymatic reaction involving three enzymes.&nbsp;The homologous to E6-AP carboxy terminus ubiquitin-protein ligases (HECT E3s) family is an important ubiquitin-protein ligases family. The family all have a HECT domain of approximately 350 amino acids in the C-terminus. However, studies on plant HECT E3s, such as structural features, prediction of HECT domain function, and their regulatory mechanisms, are very limited. In this paper, Arabidopsis thaliana HECT family genes were analyzed, including gene structure and functional domains and its limited known functions in protein degradation, gene transcription regulation, epigenetically regulation or other functions, finally speculate their roles in plant morphologies, aging or responsive to environmental stress.</p> 反应Psidium guineense和Psidium guajava基因型的感染有enterolobii 02/08/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1015.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Psidium guajava (guava) is an important crop and economic resource in many tropical countries and Brazil stands out as one of its major commercial producers. The guava crop has been severely attacked by the plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii which has caused drastic reduction of productivity and, in some cases, even total loss of cultivated areas.The use of resistant rootstocks that are tolerant to these soil pathogens can be a low-cost solution to this pathogen, which has established itself as one of the major constraints for the cultivation of guava in Northeast Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the reaction of P. guajava and P. guineense to M. enterolobii infection under greenhouse conditions, with an infection period of 60 days. 12 P. guineense, and 4 P. guajava were evaluated. The host response to the nematode infection was evaluated according to the following parameters: gill index (GI), reproductive factor (RF), and reduction of reproductive factor (RRF). Considering the RRF criteria, the P. guineense genotypes, AR1, AR3, AR4 and AR10 were considered resistant. The RF index was considered inadequate to evaluate resistance in the 60 days period, due the slow development of the parasite in P.guineense.</p> 对蔬菜、移植的研究为农业生产压力条件下的另一种选择:生理反应 01/03/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1014.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Vegetable production by grafting is a technique which it has made possible to resume agricultural soils which previously could not be produced due to stress generated by various abiotic factors, like a lack of water,stress by high or low temperatures, and or heavy metal contamination, among them. It has been documented and defined a number of graftings which they are tolerant to different factors; however, when it comes to auscultating information related to understand the molecular responses and observe what are the biochemical changes and physiological responses of grafted plants, it is dispersed. The current paper attempts to provide basic information documented on technique, addressing the molecular, biochemical and physiological responses, and thus get a clear perspective on the use of grafts, making this practice be used with most frequently by all its advantages.</p> 常见的转录调节ABA和乙烯 01/03/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1013.php <h2>Review</h2> <p>Plant hormones are versatile chemical regulators of plant growth. The concept of hormone &lsquo;interaction&rsquo; [1] has gained much importance and several key players of hormonal network are uncovered for major plant hormones.The fact that hormones are structurally unrelated and their interaction elicits different genomic and non-genomic responses suggest hormone interaction involve co-regulation at multiple levels [2]. Recent studies suggest that hormonal interaction involves control over biosynthesis genes [3-6], key components of signalling pathways [7,8], hormone distribution [9,10], and interaction at the level of gene expression [11-13]. The spatial and temporal changes in hormone sensitivity add further complexity as they are developmental stage-dependent [14]. Understanding how these mechanisms are integrated would allow us to manipulate hormone interaction-regulated growth response under environmental changes. One such prominent emerging hormone interaction is ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) in several growth processes. In this short review, I discuss some of the common transcriptional regulators of ethylene and ABA.</p> 聚胺代谢的作用在植物病原体相互作用 12/07/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1012.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Polyamines are aliphatic amines found in all living cells, and they are necessary for several fundamental cell processes. Their protective role against various abiotic stress factors has been reported in different plant species,while the mechanism by which polyamines act during plant-microbe interaction is still poorly understood. The several types of the interactions between the plants and the microbes outline a divers and complex picture of the action mechanisms. The present review focuses on this aspect of the mode of action of polyamines and polyamine metabolism during biotroph and necrotroph interactions between plants and pathogens. It seems that apoplastic metabolism of polyamines of the host and the accumulation of H2O2 as a result of polyamine catabolism play important signalling role in plant-pathogen interactions. The manipulation of the members of the polyamine-induced signalling pathways could increase the host plant resistance to biotic stresses.</p> 叶绿素、叶黄素农作物作为染料,染料敏化太阳能电池(DSSC) 10/11/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1011.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Natural dyes have become a viable alternative to expensive and rare organic sensitizers because of their low cost, easy attainability, abundance of supply of raw materials and environmental friendliness.Chlorophyll, the most abundant pigment, can be extracted from plant leaves with simple and inexpensive methods, but it&rsquo;s difficult to use as a Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) sensitizer due to the absence of OH and COOH groups. The opposite is true for xanthophylls, a particular class of carotenoids that contain free hydroxyl groups and thus may be considered as potential DSSC sensitizers. In this work we describe a new and inexpensive method of chlorophyll extraction from leaves based on the use of a basic solvent that provides the creation of COOH groups, allowing chlorophyll binding on the TiO2 layer. This modified chlorophyll dye showed a higher DSSC efficiency level (0.72%) compared to xanthophylls, which had lower efficiency.</p> 种质资源的遗传多样性评价辣椒(辣椒spp)使用随机amplifi ed多态性DNA (RAPD)标记 09/27/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1010.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p><em>Capsicum spp</em>. is one of the most important economical horticulture crops due to its high consumption either by fresh vegetable or dried spice. Molecular genetic markers offer a number of applications in the genetic improvement of crop plants, which plays an important role in the areas of plant classification and breeding programs.The polygenetic characters of rare species, which are difficult to analyze by traditional methods can, be analyzed easily and classified by using molecular markers. In our study, genetic relationships of twenty-two paprika species were examined to estimate their genetic variations/similarities and to detect the polymorphism present within and among the paprika species by using RAPD-PCR markers. The results revealed that the maximum similarities among the 16 ICBD lines were 100%. The ICBD 03 had 76% similarity compared with other ICBD lines. The CC01 had comparatively low similarity with ICBD forms (30%), followed by EC01 (28%), EC02 (33%), CC02 (35%), and Kt.Pl-19 (60%). The similarity between EC01 and EC02 were 54%. Kt.Pl-19 showed different similarities compared to CC01 (41%), CC02, EC01 (38%), EC02 (29%) and ICBD 03 (40%). The different combinations were tried to optimize the RAPD-PCR profile, which helped to assessing the polymorphism/similarities within and among the Paprika germoplasms were studied.</p> 站点的影响因素对植被类型的克隆增长bambusoides f . shouzhu易建联 09/25/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1009.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>In order to provide theoretical foundation for forestation of <em>Phyllostachys bambusoides</em> f. <em>shouzhu </em>Yi, the site factors, and the morphological character and biomass of standard bamboo were investigated in 16 sample spots of bamboo forest in Liangping county, Chongqing City, and then the effects of site factors on the clonal growth was discussed.Three site factors as the slope position, altitude, species diversity, had significant effects on the clonal growth of the bamboo. The effects of the gradient, slope aspect, humus thickness, and soil thickness were little, but that of slope aspects was not significant. The altitude of above 800 m, the upper slope, the steep slope and slope, and the thin soil were not suitable for its clonal growth. The results showed that (1) the main site factors affecting the growth of P. bambusoides f. shouzhu were slope position, soil thickness and humus thickness; (2) The forestation site of P. bambusoides f. shouzhu should be selected at the flat ground and the gentle slope of the hills below altitude of 800 m, and the slope position of the forestation site should be selected at the mid and lower position of a hill; (3) Soil thickness and humus thickness should be kept at a suitable level; (4) The diversity of plant species in the bamboo forest should be kept at a suitable level for keeping its growth environment.</p> 水稻的生理锌纳米颗粒对发芽的影响(栽培稻L)种子 08/29/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1008.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Nanoparticles affects growth and development of Plant. Zinc is an important micronutrient that regulates various physiological responses in plant. Application of nanoparticles for modulating plants physiological response is a recent practice.&nbsp;Zinc nanoparticles has been widely used in industry for several decades. However, no significant work had been made on its potential use in agriculture. Understanding physiological effect of Zn NP on rice seed germination could suggest the basis for its prospective application in agriculture to improve plant growth. In the present experiment effect of Zn NP was studied in Kmj-6-1-1 which is a commonly growing rice cultivar of Karimganj district of Assam, India. An exposure to Zn NP (0 mg/L, 5mg/L,10mg/L, 15mg/L, 20mg/L &amp; 50mg/L) caused significant changes in radicle and plumule length , mass ( fresh &amp; dry mass) and seed moisture content in rice. Antioxidant enzymes like guaiacol peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gluthathione reductase (GR) also increased due to ZnNP treatment. This suggest that Zn NP may significantly alters antioxidant metabolism during rice seed germination. In conclusion, Zn NP protected rice plants from ROS damage by improving levels of antioxidant enzyme activities during germination. As a consequence the Zn NP treated seeds, showed better potential for germination. Further, genomic analysis of germinating rice seeds are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which Zn NP modulates germination process in rice.</p> 乙肝病毒:基因组结构、HBVsAg隔离和创新的病毒开始在中东地区 08/09/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1007.php <h2>BRIEF INFORMATION</h2> <p>Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the world&rsquo;s major infectious diseases with 350 million people who are chronic carriers of HBV [1]. Significant minorities go on to develop liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma and over 1 million die annually from HBV-diseased liver.Janahi E. at faculty of science, Bahrain University, Bahrain has submitted the following information [2], on HBV-genome organization as part of his Ph.D. degree (2007) in Imperial College, England. HBV genomic organization has 4 Open Reading Frames (ORFs) i.e. Pre-S/S Gene, Pre-C/C ORF, P ORF and X ORF. Regulatory Elements has 4 promoters (pre S2, pre S1, C promoters and X promoters), Pregenomic RNA, Enhancers (Enh 1 and Enh 2) where they are involved in cccDNA formation, Glococorticoid-Responsive Element which is located in X ORF and P ORF overlapping, Polyadenylation Signal (Direct Repeat 1 (DR1) and Direct Repeat 2 (DR2)), Epsilon-Stem Loop and Post-Transcriptional Regulatory Element. HBV genotype D is prevalent in our Middle East area. The HBV genome is a partially relaxed-circular dsDNA molecule consisting of a full length strand (minus strand) with a single unique nick and a complementary (positive strand) of variable length. HBV is considered as a para-retrovirus because its replication involves the reverse transcription of an intermediate-RNA function, of pre-genomic RNA (pgRNA). Replication of HBV genome starts with the encapsidation of the pgRNA and encodes HBV polymerase into an immature nucleocapsid formed by the viral core antigen. Inside the immature nucleocapsid, the viral polymerase converts pgRNA into minus-strand DNA, which in turn is used as a template for the synthesis of the plus-strand DNA, resulting in the formation of the characteristic mature double-stranded, relaxed circular DNA molecule [2]. HBVsAg has been isolated from Egyptian samples and identified using RTPCR [3-5]. Polymerase and HBVsAg regions have been also isolated and identified [5]. HBVsAg (S) gene has been identified at the band size 25.42 kDa [3,4]. Virotherapy for plant-based vaccine structure has been speculated for future work. Proposed CMV-HBVsAg chimeric-virus construct. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 26 kDa hybrid coat protein (CP D/S) gene for 2 strains (CMV/S and CMV/D) were isolated and amplified from sgRNA 4 using F and R primers. Replicase gene (RP) and 30 kDa movement protein gene (MP) were used. Promoter (35sP). Nopaline synthase terminator (Nos3T) are constructed between Right and left boarder (RB and LB). Proposed BeYDV-HBVsAg chimeric virus construct. HBVsAg (S) protein -Bean Yellow Dwarf Begomovirus chimeric virus [6]. Long and short intergenic regions (LIR &amp; SIR) of bean yellow dwarf Gemini virus as well as capsid protein (CP), movement protein (MP) and replication-associated protein (RepA) genes and as well as 35s P and Nos3T will be constructed between Right and left boarder (RB and LB). Brief processing of vaccine production is as follow: a. Virus and RNA sources, which is HBVsAg that has isolated as two isolates from Egypt by El-Kalamawy et al. [4]. Also Mahmoud and Hashem [5], have isolated HBVsAg and HBVpAg. Also, Elghannam et al. [3], have isolated HBVsSg. b. Computer-Assisted Analysis, c. in vitro Construction of Chimeric Viruses (1. Construct Design, 2. Target Gene (Sub-units), Gene Promotors, Terminators and Orientation, 3. Virus-Based Vector (Recombinant Viral Genes), 4. CP, Replicase and Movement Protein Genes, 5. Chimeric Virus Stability. 6. Plant Bioreactor Inoculation, Vacuum and Agrobacterium infiltration, 7. Transient Expression, 8. Gene Transformation, 9. Plant-expressed Protein Vaccine Confirmation (Symptomatology, EM and WB). Scaling up vaccine-containing plants, Expressed-protein vaccine purification and dosing. Bioreactor host plant has to be chosen.</p> 影响Vochysia haenkeana提取的神经肌肉阻滞引起的具窍蝮蛇属jararaca毒液在小鸡二腹肌cervicis体外做准备 08/08/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1006.php <h2>SUMMARY</h2> <p>Vochysia haenkeana extract (Vh-E) was assessed against the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararaca venom on chick biventer cervicis (BC) preparation. Pre- and post-venom incubation treatments (Pre-vit and Post-vit) were analysed here.&nbsp;Contractures ACh (110 &micro;M) and KCl (20 mM) were evoked before and after addition of venom without stimulation. Vh-E (600 &micro;g/mL) under Pre-vit was more efficient to neutralize the neuromuscular blockade by venom (40 &micro;g/mL) [72.5&plusmn;4.6% (venom) vs. 45.2&plusmn;14% (Vh-E) of blockade, p&lt;0.05, n=4]. Vh-E (600 &micro;g/mL) did not cause significant changes under Post-vit [72.5&plusmn;4.6% (venom) vs. 63.4&plusmn;8.2% (Vh-E) of blockade, n=4]. The Pre-vit inhibited the blockade of the contracture to ACh (106&plusmn;17% of response; n=4) while the Post-vit was able to attenuate the effect of the venom on this contracture (55&plusmn;5% of response; n=4); related to those contractures to KCl both of treatments with Vh-E attenuated the blocker effect of the venom (62.5&plusmn;7.7% and 55&plusmn;5% of response for Pre-vit and Post-vit, respectively; n=4). In conclusion, Vh-E neutralizes partially the neuromuscular blockade in Pre-vit, an effect that can be related to preserved function of &ldquo;extrinsic&rdquo; post-synaptic receptors, by measured contractures in response to ACh. The myotoxicity of the venom was significantly reduced by Vh-E in both, Pre-vit and Post-vit, by measured contractures in response to KCl.</p> 野生型土壤杆菌属rhizogenesmediated在植物基因转移:农杆菌转化株的毒力和选择 06/12/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1005.php <h2>ABSTRACT</h2> <p><em>Agrobacterium rhizogenes</em>ATCC 15834 wild type strain was transformed with the binary vector pBI121 using the heat shock method. The transformed <em>Agrobacterium</em> was then tested for virulence through tobacco leaf explant transformation.&nbsp;Compared to the non-transformed Agrobacterium, the transformed Agrobacterium showed reduced virulence, producing significantly lower number of hairy roots in tobacco leaf explants. Although the transformed Agrobacterium showed reduced virulence, it was able to transfer the T-DNA of the binary vector into the plant genome, resulting in stable GUS expression in the generated hairy roots. This indicated that in addition to the transfer DNA (T-DNA) from its root inducing (Ri) plasmid, the transformed Agrobacterium is also capable of transferring the binary vector T-DNA and allowing the integration of a foreign gene. Results also showed that hairy root generation efficiency of the transformed Agrobacterium varied with the concentration of the selection agent (kanamycin). Hairy root generation efficiency (hairy roots&middot;explant-1) progressively increased with decreasing concentrations of kanamycin; and the efficiency was highest in the absence of kanamycin. Generated hairy roots showed very strong to tiny GUS expression even those that grew under the highest concentration of the kanamycin (50 mg&middot;L-1). This indicated that co-transformation and efficient transgene expression does not always occur.</p> 敌对的特性显示通过植物生长促进Rhizobacteria (PGPR):一个回顾 06/02/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1004.php <h2>ABSTRACT</h2> <p>Soil dwelling bacteria able to colonize plant roots and closely associated soil are referred to as rhizobacteria. A wide range of rhizobacteria has the ability to promote plant growth directly by producing phytohormone and nutrients; and indirectly by controlling plant pathogen.These beneficial bacteria are known as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). PGPR control phytopathogens by producing chemicals that could damage pathogen cells, removing pathogen specific nutrients from the environment, or inducing resistance against pathogen in plant body. Antagonistic bacteria specifically damage pathogens by producing lytic enzymes, antibiotics and bacteriocins; and excluding pathogen from plant environment by siderophores oriented iron chelation. This review highlights the antagonistic feature of PGPR. Application of antagonistic bacteria as biopesticides is an attractive alternate of chemical pesticides. Chemical pesticides are non-targeted and cause pollution during its synthesis as well as at the site of application. Antagonistic bacteria could be used as biopesticides and biofertilizers for better plant health and growth improvement.</p> 叶和茎的植物化学的内容Marsilea quadrifolia (l) 05/23/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1003.php <h2>ABSTRACT</h2> <p>The present study was aimed to screen and quantify the phytochemicals by qualitative and quantitative analysis in methanol and aqueous leaf and stem extracts of Marsilea quadrifolia (L.).&nbsp;In qualitative analysis, the phytochemical compounds such as tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins, anthroquinones, phenolic compounds and phytosterol were screened. Among these phytocompounds tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and phenolic compounds were observed in methanol and aqueous leaf and stem extracts of M. quadrifolia. Anthroquinones were absent in both leaf and stem extracts of M. quadrifolia. The content of phenolic compounds 8.34&plusmn;0.92 mg/g and 7.31&plusmn;0.46 mg/g, flavonoids 7.46&plusmn;0.64 mg/g and 6.45&plusmn;0.68 mg/g, alkaloids 6.12&plusmn;0.51 mg/g and 5.89&plusmn;0.61 mg/g, tannins 6.58&plusmn;0.72 mg/g and 6.07&plusmn;0.56 mg/g and saponins 5.32&plusmn;0.48 mg/g and 6.30&plusmn;0.58 mg/g were determined in leaf and stem of M. quadrifolia, respectively. So, the present study confirmed that the presence of phytocompounds in leaf and stem of M. quadrifolia.</p> 药理的影响碳酸酐酶抑制马铃薯叶子5种的防御反应 03/03/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1002.php <h2>SUMMARY</h2> <p>In this study we proposed carbonic anhydrase (CA) asan important element of basal resistance during the potato (<em>Solanum tuberosum</em> L.)-<em>Phytophthora infestans</em> interaction.We found a different <em>&beta;</em><em>-CA</em>expression pattern in incompatible vs. compatible systems correlated in time with CA enzyme activity.Resistant potato leaves supplied with dorzolamide (an inhibitor of carbonate CA activity) and challenged with the pathogen showed an elevated nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, which was the most evident during the early phase of NO burst (at 3 hpi) during hypersensitive response (HR). In vitro application of dorzolamide and effective inhibitors of NO synthesis confirmed the implication of CA activity in NO metabolism during potato defense. To clarify how suppression of CA carbonate activity translates into the complexity of NO-related responses leading to potato resistance or susceptibility to an oomycete pathogen we analysed expression of NPR, PR1, and PAL.</p> <p>Taken together, pharmacological damping of CA activity revealed a functional link between CA and NO-dependent signaling in potato defense against P. infestans manifested by accelerated NO formation and a modified salicylic acid defense pathway. The dorzolamide-mediated effective responses for basal resistance also delayed symptoms of late blight in the susceptible potato cultivar, without overcoming HR formation in the resistant one.</p> 磷酸钙纳米颗粒对水稻的影响 02/21/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/jpsp/jpsp-aid1001.php <h2>ABSTRACT</h2> <p>Calcium phosphates are of great interest in medicine, biology, agriculture and materials sciences. The present study evaluates the effect of calcium phosphates nanoparticles on biochemical changes in rice.&nbsp;Nanoparticles increased the growth rate and affect the physiology of the plant. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles may help in the formulation of new nano growth promoter and nano-fertilizers for agricultural use. Therefore, it could potentially help in reduction of the quantity of fertilizer applied to crops and contributing to precision farming as it reduces fertilizer wastage and in turn environmental pollution due to agricultural malpractices. However, detail physiological and molecular understanding of its impact on rice crop plant is needed in future to validate its prospective application in agriculture.</p>