药学和制药科学档案 //m.lakotalakes.com/hps Heighpubs开放获金博宝app体育取期刊上 en - us 儿科口服液的标准形式 03/26/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1026.php <p>Paediatric hospitals frequently have to face the lack of commercially available medicines suitable or even licensed for their use in paediatrics. Thus, only one-third of all medicines approved by the European Medicines Agency over the period of 1995 to 2005 were licensed for use in children [1].</p> COVID-19免疫毒理学意义:先天免疫传感器和免疫逃逸 03/25/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1025.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Related COVID-19 and new Variant and treatment like vaccine it is relevant to deeply verify the immunologic implication and in a special way regarding the innate immune sensor system and the evasion of the immune system.</p> <p>This can be crucial to search for new strategies to fight this severe disease under a Toxicology-antidotes point of view.</p> <p>The rapid emergence of a new variant is under study by researchers because some of these show different responses to antibodies as reported in literature (vaccine efficacy?).</p> <p>In this article after a review part it is submitted a collection of hypothesis of solution to contrast COVID-19.</p> <p>Spread and mortality and project hypothesis.</p> <p>A new toxicological approach also in a viral respiratory disease can be a novelty to adequately fight this severe condition and this focusing not only towards specific immunity but also a specific measures.</p> <p>A toxicological approach in drug- vaccine like products designing makes it possible to get the clinical outcomes needed.</p> 生产和描述从金黄色葡萄球菌ASIA4葡萄球菌激酶的酶 09/17/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1024.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2>& lt; p>六个临床从不同临床分离金黄色葡萄球菌菌株样本。隔离ASIA1和ASIA2孤立从尿路感染患者的尿液样本;ASIA3隔绝拭子样品燃烧脓肿患者Assiut大学医院以及ASIA4 ASIA5和ASIA6从血液样本中获得不同的癌症患者在南埃及癌症研究所。所有隔离显示不同的能力产生光环的水解与不同直径在血琼脂,加热等离子体琼脂,琼脂酪蛋白和脱脂牛奶琼脂板不同的凝块溶解百分比。金黄色葡萄球菌ASIA3 ASIA4和ASIA6 4.83, 5.98和2.08 U /毫升葡萄球菌激酶大豆胰蛋白胨肉汤减少到1.95,2.08和1.70 U /毫升酪蛋白水解酵母提取物肉汤,分别。另一方面,金黄色葡萄球菌ASIA1, ASIA2 ASIA5给了2.20,2.93和3.65 U /毫升CYEB相比,2.10,1.88和3.41 U /毫升TSB生产介质。极度活跃的生产商的葡萄球菌激酶产生金黄色葡萄球菌ASIA4增加了7.64倍(从2.08 U /毫升15.88 U /毫升)在优化发酵培养基组成的5.0 g蔗糖作为碳源,10.0克大豆作为氮源,5.0克氯化钠,K2HPO4 5.0 g和pH值7.0接种隔离ASIA4和孵化24小时35岁,度;C。此外,葡萄球菌激酶活动达到顶峰的最佳酶反应条件,反应时间25分钟,酪蛋白为底物,反应pH值8.0,反应温度40度;C。此外,它保留了100%的活动温度介于15 - 45之间,度;C和酸度范围从6.0到9.0。 EDTA inhibited the enzyme activity by 3.0% to 32.2% with increasing its values from 30.0 to 90.0 mM. MgCl2 at a concentration of 30 mM increased the enzyme activity by 4% and then slightly decreased at higher concentrations but NaCl was potent staphylokinase activator at concentrations lower than 90 mM.</p> 抗癌活性的新型表面功能化金属掺杂羟基磷灰石 06/03/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1023.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>In this manuscript it has been described a novel synthesis of mercury doped hydroxyapatite (Hap) and its application on human liver carcinoma cell line (Hep G2) and human lung fibroblast carcinoma cell line (MRC 5). Nano-sized hydroxyapatite doped with Hg2+ was synthesized by a solution based chemical method along with mercury ion. The surface of nanoparticle of mercury doped hydroxyapatite (MHAp) was functionalized by using phosphonomethyl iminodiacetic acid (PMIDA) for making it stable as dispersed phase with negative zeta potential. Surface functionalization was confirmed by FTIR measurements. Crystalline nature, morphology and surface topology were studied by powder XRD, FESEM and AFM measurements. Particle size of the well dispersed sample was obtained by HRTEM image. The studies on cell viability of Hep G2 and MRC 5 cell in presence of mercury doped HAp nanoparticle (MHAp) were determined through WST assay. It was observed that nanocomposite exhibited a site specific action towards MRC 5 cell lines along with reduction of toxicity toward normal cells.</p> 药用植物提取物与细菌纤维素膜:抗菌活性和理化性质 02/04/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1022.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Burns injuries induce a state of immunodepression that predisposes to a bacterial infectious complication that leads to several comorbid diseases and high mortality rate. Previous studies about anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Aloe vera (L.) Burm., Calendula officinalis L. and Matricaria recutita L. are acknowledge by antimicrobial effects.</p> <p>Previous studies about anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Aloe vera (L.) Burm., Calendula officinalis L. and Matricaria recutita L. are knowledge by antimicrobial effects. Bacterial cellulose membrane (nature BCM) is a potential carrier as a drug delivery system in the wound and burn treatment. The present study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of extracts of A. vera, C. officinalis, and M. recutita incorporated in BCM against bacterial strains commonly present in wound and burns. The agar-dilution susceptibility testing was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa. The standardized extracts of A. vera, M. recutita, and C. officinalis were, respectively, used at 3.25% of total polysaccharides, 1% of apigenin 7-O-glucoside and 0.084% of total flavonoids expressed in quercetin. The BCM incorporated with A. vera extract was efficient to prevent the growth of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. BCM loaded with C. officinalis inhibited the growth of S. aureus. The BCM loaded with A. vera and C. officinalis extract showed better antibacterial activities against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus and, consequently, properties to prevent infectious disease in the wound or burn caused by these bacteria.</p> 呼出空气中氧化应激的生物标志 01/31/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1021.php & lt; h2> Editorial< / h2>& lt; p>氧化反应产生,通过复杂的中间步骤,小能量包更容易存储比突然燃烧氧化。缓慢和控制生产能源的核电站允许其使用,一个巨大的爆炸产生的结果,我们知道…它;,同样的事情在我们的身体。这些反应是没有100%的效率,但并不是所有用作生物燃料产生的能量。事实上,在中间阶段,他们诱导的细胞和组织恶化消耗大约10%的能量。他们造成重大,宝贝,穿和tear&”,当不再有任何赔偿这些寄生氧化反应。后者可以在病理情况下过度使用诱导炎症反应,或者只是在代谢生产过剩,甚至简单的强烈和持久的努力。你们;/ p> Antiuropathogenic和抗氧化活动Hypoxis hemerocallidea林。提取,从其分类学的化合物相关的物种 01/22/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1020.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Hypoxis hemerocallidea Lam is one of the 43 Hypoxis species in South Africa, marketed extensively as over the counter herbal product for the management of several diseases. The plant commercial products link efficacy to hypoxoside 4, its aglycone (rooperol), or &beta;-sitosterol. This study investigated antibacterial and anti-oxidant activities of four other molecules and two extracts from the Hypoxis plant. Visual antioxidant limit of detection and free radical scavenging activities of test samples were determined using 20 mM hydrogen peroxide, 0.4 mM DPPH or ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Quantitative free radical was determine by spectrophotometric method while antibacterial activity was evaluated using MICs against uropathogens: S. aureus (ATCC25923), S. marcescens (ATCC 14041), P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9721), P. mirabilis (ATCC 33583) and E. coli (ATCC 10536).</p> <p>Anti-oxidant activities visual limit of detection of 0.06 mg/mL and percentage free radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.048 - 0.032 mg/ml) for pure compounds 1 - 4 and (IC50 = 0.037 - 0.039 mg/ml) for extracts were obtained. The reducing power IC50 ranged between 0.15 - 0.23 mg/ml for extracts and 0.11-0.35 mg/ml for standards. Antibacterial potentials show a noteworthy to moderate MIC values of 0.20 - 1.56 mg/ml against S. aureus (ATCC 25923), S. marcescens (ATCC 14041), P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9721), P. mirabilis (ATCC 33583) and E. coli (ATCC 10536). Galpinoside 5, hemerocalloside 3 and curculigoside C 2 are the other active compounds in Hypoxis plant.</p> Co-extract混合物从毒毛旋花子hispidus(根)和Aframomum meleguta(种子)显示其抗炎活性的植物化学成分的协同作用 12/11/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1019.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2>& lt; p> & lt; strong>背景:& lt; / strong>Combination of extracts from multiple plants are typically used in ethnomedicine to putatively offer more potent chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive effects than that of individual extracts from single plants. Aqueous extracts from two multipurpose plants Strophanthus hispidus (roots) and Aframomum meleguta (seeds) are topically co-administered in the nasal cavities for the ethnomedicinal management of chronic sinusitis.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study assessed the potential phytochemical synergy between constituent extracts of Strophanthus hispidus (roots) and Aframomum meleguta (seeds) in its anti-inflammation, anti-microbial and anti-oxidant effects.</p> <p><strong>Methods and Materials: </strong>Broth dilution assay assessed anti-microbial activities. DPPH radical scavenging assay examined the scope of anti-oxidant activities and inhibition of carrageenan-induced 7-day old chick feet oedema revealed anti-inflammatory activities.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Anti-microbial activities of individual plant extracts in broth dilution assay showed comparable potency to that of the co-extract mixture. Similarly, individual extracts showed levels of DPPH radical scavenging activities in anti-oxidant assay that was comparable to those found for the co-extract mixture. In contrast to these two effects, inhibition of carrageenan-induced 7-day old chick feet oedema revealed an anti-inflammatory activity evoked by co-extract mixtures that was greater than the sum of the individual potencies of the two extracts.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The potential phytochemical synergy of the two plants extracts in its anti-inflammatory response largely validates ethnomedicinal practice and generally confirms growing literature reports that ascribe the net pharmacological activities of herbal extracts to the combined multi-activities of unique phytochemical entities at multiple target sites.</p> 在加纳合法化大麻合法化吗?复习药理的证据 12/10/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1018.php & lt; h2> Summary< / h2>& lt; p> & lt; strong>背景:& lt; / strong>虽然非法,加纳吸食大麻的历史悠久。改变观念,倡导全球合法化了。本研究考试药理证据的前景和挑战合法化和/或大麻合法化。你们在加纳;/ p>& lt; p> & lt; strong>结果:& lt; / strong>大麻和大麻类,宝贝,药理enigma&”,具有独特能力激活至少3的4药物受体超家族。这包括;变力的瞬时受体电位辣椒1 (TRPV1) metabotropic大麻素受体(CB)和核过氧物酶体扩散者激活受体(PPAR)。 Cannabinoid receptors also dimerize with other receptors creating distinctly new signaling pathways. Cannabis and cannabinoids show good anti- nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressant anti-emetogenic activity and variable anticonvulsant activity. It can play important role in palliative care, some rare intractable epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, cachexia and Opioid Use Disorder. Cannabis precipitates psychosis in individuals with underlying genetic susceptibility. Chronic cannabis use alter the neurobiology of adolescent brain, predisposing them to amotivational syndrome characterized by depersonalization and inhibited motivation for goal directed behavior. Cannabis is also a &ldquo;gateway drug&rdquo;; ushering users to &ldquo;harder&rdquo; substances of abuse and reinstating extinguished drug seeking behaviours. The recent tramadol abuse in Ghana may have been precipitated by previous and concurrent cannabis use. Furthermore, Ghana&rsquo;s cannabis may have a higher propensity to induce detrimental effects because of preferential accumulation the psychotropic delta-9-Tetrathydrocannabinol as a result of the high tropical temperature and humidity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There is not sufficient pharmacological evidence supporting criminalization of medical cannabis in Ghana. However, the same evidence does not support legalization of recreational cannabis.</p> 筛选抗生素残留在家禽在尼泊尔加德满都山谷:横断面研究 09/27/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1017.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>This cross-sectional study was conducted to screen the presence of antibiotic residue in poultry. A total of 60 samples (30 Muscle and 30 Liver) were taken from local meat shops from different parts of Kathmandu valley. Disc assay method was used. Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) were used as test organisms. The results revealed 8 positive samples (which is 13%). Among 30 Liver samples, 3 showed positive result, while only 2 muscle sample indicated positive result. Muscle has the highest percentage of positive results than liver. For S. aureus showed greater percentage of positive results than that of E. coli. The presence of antibiotic residue and its many pathological effects to public health demands the strict rules and regulations as well as surveillance from the concerned authorities.</p> 缺氧的关系、慢性缺血和改变前列腺结构和慢性前列腺疾病的进展 09/20/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1016.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Chronic prostatitis today show high level of relapses and recurrent pathological events even if using the best pharmacological therapy. A better understanding of physiopathological effect of ischemic hypoxic condition (pelvic, prostate tissue) and the lymphatic congestion in same body region contribute in evolution of a complex condition. The same focusing the strategy in biofilm reduction or in leukocyte infiltration can be a right way to reduce relapses and progression of the prostatic disease. Hypoxia is also related to prostatic cancer progression and prostatic biofilm if responsible of making a new micro- environment often drug resistance. A deep knowledge in this kind of phenomena can improve the clinical effect of drug therapy.</p> 发现正确的治疗糖尿病(2),blooda€™s压力,和相关的疾病 08/15/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1015.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>For last decades diabetes type 2, blood&rsquo;s pressure (especially hypertension) and relating diseases are most serious problems for much people over the world. These diseases are not like other different diseases then for studying them very accuracy, this research choose sample from different societies a small city called &ldquo;Al-Mejar Al-Kabeer&rdquo; in south of Iraq. People of this city do same activities than other Iraqi cities and during the last twenty years the only change happened in this city is; they changed them drinking water from tap water to commercial water called it R.O. Population of this city is about 70000 persons and about 20000 from them have diabetes that means more than 28% from all people of this city have this disease, this ratio or may be more for hypertension.&nbsp;</p> <p>Results of this research show that the main reason for diabetes type 2, blood&rsquo;s pressure and relating diseases is civilization. It shows according good evidences that the right treatment for diabetes, hypertension and relating diseases is about 5g/day potassium ions (K+) with less amounts from sodium ions such as 2:1. In fact, insulin forming from known amino acids so each body need sufficient amounts from these acids therefore the right treatment for diabetes type 2 is not only potassium it must there sufficient amounts from proteins each day or each three days.</p> <p>References of this research indicated; Diabetes and hypertension are well understood but this research find that these diseases need a chemist touch to be fully understood.</p> 阿奇霉素的血清和唾液的关系水平和临床端点使用阿奇霉素维持治疗支气管扩张患者 07/16/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1014.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2>& lt; p> & lt; strong>背景:& lt; / strong>阿奇霉素(AZM)是一种大环内脂类抗菌素与独特的药代动力学性质和正越来越多地用于维持治疗支气管扩张患者为了减少感染发作,改善肺部症状。行动的确切机制尚不清楚,阿奇霉素剂量水平的关系,地方和系统性药物水平和临床效果不过,尚未被广泛地研究过了。你们;/ p>& lt; p> & lt; strong>目标:& lt; / strong>探索AZM血清和唾液浓度之间的关系,临床效果参数和副作用。;/ p>& lt; p> & lt; strong>方法:& lt; / strong>阿奇霉素浓度测定血清和唾液样本的支气管扩张患者接受一年的AZM治疗(250毫克OD)进入支气管扩张和阿奇霉素治疗(蝙蝠)试验、双盲随机安慰剂对照试验。结果与数据AZM剂量水平,恶化的频率,肺功能(1秒钟用力呼气容积(FEV1)、用力肺活量(FVC)、生活质量和症状在同年。你们收集;/ p>& lt; p> & lt; strong>结果:& lt; / strong>83痰样本31能够从43例病人和151份血清样本进行分析。意味着AZM剂量范围从18.8至39.8毫克/公斤体重/星期,生成意味着AZM浓度为7.57 mg / L (SD 9.49)痰和0.11 mg / L (SD 0.085)在血清。 No correlation was found between side effects and AZM dose level, sputum- or serum concentrations. Significant correlation was found between AZM sputum concentration and CRP-level (r= -0.6).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>High and stable AZM sputum levels were reached during long term treatment, as opposed to low AZM levels in serum. Apart from CRP-levels to AZM sputum concentration, no other outcome parameter showed significant correlation to AZM serum- or sputum levels. AZM dose- or exposure levels were not predictive for the occurrence of side effects.</p> 药效学的大麻类 05/08/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1013.php <h2>Review Article</h2> <p>&ldquo;Pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids &ldquo;(i.e. a set of biological effects elicited in the living organism by interaction with its biochemical and biophysical functions up to the cellular level) is studied for a long time during both, physiological and pathological conditions.</p> 逐步回归建模的监测Salvianolate通过大孔树脂分离色谱柱使用紫外光谱数据 01/17/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1012.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p><strong>Aim:</strong> Study the monitoring method of separation of Salvianolate through macroporous resin chromatographic column using UV spectral data.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> HPLC was used to determine the concentration of Salviol B in the eluent liquid of macroporous resin chromatographic column. The UV spectrum of the eluent liquid was measured using portable UV spectrometer. Stepwise regression was used to develop the model to predict the concentration of Salviol B in the eluent liquid of macroporous resin chromatographic column using the UV spectral data.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Stepwise regression model was developed to predict the concentration of Salviol B in the eluent liquid of macroporous resin chromatographic column. RMSE was 0.3263, MAP was 0.2323 and CV was 0.1796.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Stepwise regression model could be used to predict the concentration of Salviol B in the eluent liquid of macroporous resin chromatographic column using UV spectral data.</p> 应用Pyphagora€™s定理Ki和Ka常数修正的酶抑制和激活 10/30/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1011.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>The analysis of dependence of the length projection of Li vectors of biparametrical inhibited and activated (La) enzymatic reactions from the length projection of vectors of monoparametrical inhibited and activated enzymatic reactions on the basic &sigma;0 plane in three-dimensional coordinate system, allows to deduct the quadratic forms of equations for the correction of the constants of inhibition (ki) and activation (Ka) of enzymes. Examples of correction of constants are given.</p> 临床前研究了阳离子脂质体配方包含2用于治疗人类肿瘤 10/29/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1010.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2>& lt; p>人类宫颈癌肿瘤表达的受体(IL-2R) - 2诱导裸体小鼠的腹腔。肿瘤显著降低了ip管理自由- 2或脂质体含有生长因子。没有观察到小鼠毒性甚至在脂质体在最高剂量的2。我们没有检测血浆中的任何2指向一个强大的保留脂质体的腔。我们的结论是,这个临床研究治疗腹腔肿瘤表达IL-2R是有效和安全的。脂质体稳定及其活动长达一年- 2时保持在-14 oc低温贮藏媒体FDA批准的为人类使用灵活;/ p> 在苏丹药物分布的某些方面 03/09/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1009.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>The strategy of price liberalisation and privatisation had been implemented in Sudan over the last decade, and has had a positive result on government deficit. The investment law approved recently has good statements and rules on the above strategy in particular to pharmacy regulations. Under the pressure of the new privatisation policy, the government introduced radical changes in the pharmacy regulations. To improve the effectiveness of the public pharmacy, resources should be switched towards areas of need, reducing inequalities and promoting better health conditions. Medicines are financed either through cost sharing or full private. The role of the private services is significant. A review of reform of financing medicines in Sudan is given in this study. Also, it highlights the current drug supply system in the public sector, which is currently responsibility of the Central Medical Supplies Public Corporation (CMS). In Sudan, the researchers did not identify any rigorous evaluations or quantitative studies about the impact of drug regulations on the quality of medicines and how to protect public health against counterfeit or low quality medicines, although it is practically possible. However, the regulations must be continually evaluated to ensure the public health is protected against by marketing high quality medicines rather than commercial interests, and the drug companies are held accountable for their conduct.</p> 生物therapy-Related脱髓鞘在孩子幼年特发性关节炎患者周围神经病变 07/19/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1008.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Demyelinating peripheral neuropathy has been described in association with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors. It is rarely developed after treatment discontinuation. We present the case of a child with juvenile idiopathic arthritis who developed peripheral neuropathy few months after TNF inhibitor withdrawal with clinical worsening of the neurological sequelae while undergoing treatment with abatacept.</p> 准备、固态表征和评价ketoprofenglucosamine HCl固体分散体 06/26/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1007.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>In this investigation, solid dispersions were prepared and characterized to improve the solubility and dissolution of poorly water soluble drug Ketoprofen, using glucosamine HCl as a carrier. For the improvement of the solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs different techniques are used such as solubilization, salt formation, particle size reduction and solid dispersion etc, but in the present study, solid dispersions (SDs) of poorly water soluble NSAID Ketoprofen were prepared to improve its solubility and dissolution rate, using solvent evaporation method with drug-carrier ratio of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. Our results indicate that all solid dispersions of Ketoprofen and Glucosamine HCl exhibited more enhancements in solubility and dissolution rates than corresponding physical mixtures. The DSC thermograms and X-ray diffraction patterns showed a slight reduction in crystallinity in solid dispersions which were further verified by FT-IR and SEM. It is concluded that solid dispersion is an effective technique for enhancing the solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drug Ketoprofen using Glucosamine HCl as a carrier. This amino sugar (Glucosamine HCl) could be used as a novel potential carrier for preparation and formulation of SDs and would have potential commercial benefits.</p> 安定撤军表达式与海马1号Upregulation 01/08/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1006.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2>& lt; p> & lt; strong>背景:& lt; / strong>Benzodiazepines are usually prescribed for anxiety and sleep disorders in a long-term fashion that may cause drug dependence. Discontinuation after prolonged administration may lead to withdrawal expression, being anxiety the most predominant sign. It has been described that a context-dependent associative learning process underlies diazepam dependence. Nitric oxide is a crucial player in learning and memory processes, hippocampal transmission, as well as in benzodiazepines withdrawal. Considering that previous results from our laboratory showed an increase in hippocampal functional plasticity only in diazepam dependent rats, the aim of the present investigation is to determine whether diazepam dependence could alter neuronal nitric oxide synthase enzyme (NOS-1) expression within the hippocampus, by using western blot.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> chronic diazepam-treated animals that developed dependence showed increase in NOS-1 expression in dorsal, but not in ventral hippocampus, while no-dependent or control animals presented similar NOS-1 protein levels.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> withdrawal from long-term diazepam exposure could be associated to increased nitric oxide neurotransmission within dorsal hippocampus induced by NOS-1 over-expression. This mechanism could underlie the improved hippocampal synaptic transmission previously observed in diazepam withdrawn animals. Confirmatory experiments need to be addressed to determine the mechanisms by which nitric oxide participates in benzodiazepines withdrawal in order find new molecular targets to develop pharmacological tools to prevent the withdrawal syndrome.</p> Nano-formulations眼科治疗 12/29/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1005.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Ocular disorders encompass a multitude of diseases that are unique in their cause, therapy and degree of severity. Due to distinctive morphology of the eye, efficient ocular drug delivery has proven to be a difficult task. Current treatments of ophthalmological diseases include the usage of both intrusive as well as nonintrusive methods such as injections, eye drops, ointments, gels etc. The current state of the art drug delivery methods are associated with low bioavailability and therefore nanotechnology based drug delivery approached are evolving as for improving the therapeutic index of currently used drugs against variety of ocular disorders. This review highlights the recent developments in nano-formulations for ophthalmic treatment and also offers discussions towards the future prospectus of nano-formulations in the mainstream of ophthalmic diseases.</p> 儿科药物:配方方面的考虑 07/31/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1004.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>The use of unlicensed and off-label medicines in children is widespread and has raised an increasing concern over the last years. The majority of medicines taken by children are extemporaneously compounded by pharmacist, and there is a lack of information regarding bioavailability, suitability and stability. These formulations must be prepared from pure active substance and not from commercially available dosage forms. The development of paediatric formulations, particularly those suitable for very young children, can be a challenge to pharmacists. There is limited knowledge available about the acceptability of different dosage forms, administration volume, dosage form size, taste, safety of formulation excipients regarding to age and development status. The selection of formulation and route of administration depends on the disease being treated and the clinical condition. European Guidelines and reflection papers recommend that pharmaceutical development should consider some parameters like capability, acute or long-term illness, caregiver convenience, disability, culture differences and formulations more attractive to children must be explored.</p> 感觉和反义Oligodeoxynucleotides Glun1 Nmdar在认知增强剂(益智药)和保护剂在正常和缺血(缺氧)条件的体外研究 07/07/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1003.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p><strong>Aims:</strong> Implication of modified N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) in synaptic plasticity and learning was investigated in normal and pathological conditions.</p> <p><strong>Study design:</strong> We studied the efficiency of synaptic plasticity, the development of the long-term potentiation/depression (LTP/LTD) in olfactory cortex slices, treated with antisense or sense oligodeoxynucleotides (aODNs and sODNs) to the GluN1 subunit of NMDAR.</p> <p><strong>Main outcome:</strong> aODNs induced the LTD development in slices after high-frequency tetanization. Contrariwise, in sliced treated with sODNs the enhanced LTP developed. Under conditions of severe anoxia (10 min), treatment of slices with aODNs and sODNs contributed to the preservation of synaptic activity which has been blocked in the control untreated slices. In practical implications such directed up- and down regulation of NMDAR might be useful in the readjustment of brain activity by the controlling balance of excitation/inhibition.</p> 一个进一步的例子显示效率的基于动态系统理论的建模方法在药物动力学 01/25/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1002.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p><strong>Aims:</strong> To present a further example showing an efficiency of a modeling method based on the theory of dynamic systems in pharmacokinetics.</p> <p><strong>Study design:</strong>The goals of the current study were twofold: to present (1) a further example showing efficiency of a modeling method based on the theory of dynamic systems in pharmacokinetics, an to perform (2) a next step in tutoring the use of computational and modeling tools from the theory of dynamic systems in pharmacokinetics.</p> <p>The data available in the study by Plusquellec et al. published in the October Issue of the Journal Medical Engineering &amp; Physics were used to exemplify the method considered here. For modeling purpose an advanced mathematical modeling method was employed. Modeling was performed using the computer program named CTDB described in the study by Ded&iacute;k et al. published in September 2007 issue of the Journal Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.</p> <p><strong>Main outcome:</strong> Modeling results revealed that computational and modeling tools from the theory of dynamic systems can be successfully used in the development of a mathematical model of such a complicated process as is a multiple sites discontinuous gastrointestinal absorption.</p> 步态的运动学和突变病例分析与不同的鞋子 01/24/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/hps/apps-aid1001.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Kinematic analysis and surface electromyography are tools being used as important methods to evaluate the human gait and to analyze different types of footwear aiming modifications and adaptations to the human locomotor system, especially of the feet. The aim of the present study was to analyze through electromyography (EMG) the muscles tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and to capture digital images of the human gait in four different footware situations, barefoot with tennis, platform shoes and high heels. Twenty healthy women with a mean age of 22.6 years took part in this experiment, which was performed on a treadmill at a speed of 3.8 m/s. The results showed that shoes that do not allow a normal movement of the tarsal bones caused changes in the trajectory of the gait, which promotes a greater muscular movement. This study concluded that shoes closer to a normal position and allow greater mobility of the feet, decrease muscular demands, which in everyday situations cause less localized muscular fatigue.</p>