国际临床病毒学杂志》上 //m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv Heighpubs开放获金博宝app体育取期刊上 en - us 新型冠状病毒病(COVID-19):一个广泛研究的进化,全球健康、药物靶点和疫苗 07/05/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/pdf/ijcv-aid1036.pdf & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2>& lt; p>冠状病毒疾病- 2019 (COVID-19),已成为世界范围内大流行和科学社区正努力找出最终的治疗策略在这种致命病毒,严重急性呼吸系统综合症Coronavirus& mdash; 2 (SARS-CoV-2)。目前,没有市场上潜在的化学证明抗病毒治疗可有效对抗感染这种致命的病毒引起的。一些疫苗已经发达但尚不清楚科学界多少有效应对SARS-CoV-2。疾病的传播方式和症状在这方面有两个重要的因素。快速诊断的COVID-19停止传播是非常重要的。在这个场景中,一个完整的研究从症状疾病的疫苗开发包括各种SARS-CoV-2检测技术是非常必要的。在这篇文献回顾中,我们取得了部分分析起源,病毒学,全球健康检测技术,复制路径,剂量,行为方式可能的药物和疫苗开发SARS-CoV-2。; / p> 皮肤和表面消毒剂的优势和比较分析:系统回顾SARS-CoV-2预防铺平了道路 04/29/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1035.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>More than 200 countries have been devastated by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The health workers exposed to SARS patients have been confirmed to be infected with coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), regardless of the degree of their exposure. The increasing complexity of virus existence and heterogeneity has cast doubt on disinfectants as a viable choice. Hence, the present systematic review aims to achieve the comparative analysis of established disinfectants against enveloped and non-enveloped viruses including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Three databases (Pubmed, Google scholar, and Medline) were searched to frame the systematic review. Our comparative analyses with 34 studies have found that 85% ethanol-based hand sanitizers and 7.5% Povidine Iodine based soaps/surgical scrub could be used to deter the SARS-CoV-2 virus as preferred hand sanitizers. For surface eradication, 0.5% sodium hypochlorite or a mixture of glutaraldehyde, Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QAC), and isopropanol could have more efficacies as compared to hydrogen peroxide, phenol, and QAC alone. Moreover, the accelerated hydrogen peroxide as an active ingredient in the automatic quick surface disinfectant (tunnel system), maybe a positive indication for quick whole-body sanitation. Additionally, the alternative method for avoiding the rapidly increasing chain of infection with SARS and restarting regular life has been exclusively discussed.</p> 系统性回顾各种针对性和模拟的轮状病毒 04/28/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1034.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2>& lt; p>轮状病毒引起的疾病是可怕的主要来源,严重的肠胃炎和干燥的孩子(不到5岁)。而不是全球的免疫接种轮状病毒超过10年前,轮状病毒感染仍然每年导致超过200000传递,通常在发展中国家。轮状病毒主要感染肠上皮细胞,通过吸收肠上皮细胞的拆迁引起腹泻。肠道分泌物是由轮状病毒(non-auxiliary /结构蛋白)精力充沛,肠感觉系统的实施。轮状病毒疾病可以提示病毒血症和antigenaemia(术语与更严重的迹象的肠胃炎)。轮状病毒再感染是常规的整个生命周期,即使疾病严重性与重复污染减少。耐药相关的保证对轮状病毒再感染和疾病的恢复是感知不足。本研究需要一步轮状病毒疾病的管理中心,主要控制和脱水的治疗,即使利用抗病毒和敌视通便的药物可以证明在某些情况下灵活;/ p> COVID-19流行影响抗菌阻力和继发性细菌感染 02/25/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1032.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) has become one of the most serious diseases in the history of mankind. It has captured the entire world and solutions are yet to be discovered to fight this global crisis. The outcomes of COVID-19 are influenced by a variety of pre-existing factors. The secondary microbial infections are one of the prominent ones that are major contributors for Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) as they warrant the use of antimicrobial medications. The present review aimed at exploring the potential relationship between AMR under such circumstances and COVID-19 related outcomes. The published literature across the globe has delineated that the impact of COVID-19 may have worsened by a great degree due to the presence of secondary infections majorly bacterial ones. The consequences of COVID-19 have been fatal and a significant proportion can be a major attributor to AMR, either directly or indirectly. Although, there is a dearth of studies that can establish a very strong and direct relationship between AMR and negative COVID-19 outcomes so in-depth research on this topic is required to further explain this relationship in detail.</p> COVID-19新变型和空气污染关系:机载诱变剂剂如何作用于genoma病毒表达:假设的工作 02/16/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1031.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2>& lt; p>在实际COVID-19大流行病冠状病毒并不像现在如此危险。你们,br /比;2019年12月- 2020年1月在武汉,然后在其他地方,这冠状病毒导致的严重肺炎的第一波负责许多死亡。;/ p>& lt; p>武汉和其他地区首先是高度空气污染和工业区。;/ p>& lt; p>新COVID -19变种2020年和2021年的第一个月的最后一部分是负责任的扩散的流行疾病。你们;br /比;英国、南非和brasilian新的变体显示高扩散的第一波COVID-19。; / p>& lt; p>这项工作的目的是分析与空气污染之间的关系和诱变剂的可能性物质内部的微环境可以产生新的变种槽一个遗传压力过程。;/ p>& lt; p> RNA病毒通常受到自然突变但有些现象有助于加速这个过程及其机载和mdash;aeresols微环境相关。;/ p>& lt; p>一些空气污染物是公认为诱变剂由文学因素。;/ p> 生活在一个€˜长COVID-19a€™:长期的并发症和后遗症 02/16/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1030.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Introduction - the perennial pandemic: It is being increasingly realised that the COVID-19 may have become the new reality associated with human existence world over and the mankind may have to live with it for years or even decades. Further, the grievous nature of the disease is evolving further with the genomic changes in the virus in form of mutations and evolution of variants, with enhanced infectivity and probably virulence. There are serious challenges posed by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and COVID-19 as the disease.</p> <p>COVID-19 as acute and chronic disease: On exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, not all patients develop a disease. Further, for those who develop the disease, there is a large variation in disease severity. The known factors including the constituent factors and several still unknown factors influence the disease manifestations, its course, and later the convalescent phase as well. In fact, substantial continuing morbidity after resolution of the infection indicates persisting multisystem effects of COVID-19.</p> <p>The &lsquo;long COVID-19&rsquo; or &lsquo;long haulers&rsquo;: The patients who continue to suffer with persisting symptoms have been described as long haulers and the clinical condition has been called post-COVID-19 or &lsquo;long COVID-19&rsquo;. The diagnosis should be entertained if various symptoms and signs linger well beyond the period of convalescence in COVID-19. With the chronicity, there occur inflammatory changes and damage in various organs, and the extent of organ damage determines the long-term effects.</p> <p>Management of &lsquo;long COVID&rsquo; syndrome: The &lsquo;long COVID&rsquo; syndrome has multi-system involvement, variable presentation, and unpredictable course. Following clinical and investigational assessment, the patients should be managed as per clinical manifestations, extent of organ damage and associated complications. The findings from various studies indicate that preventing further organ damage in &lsquo;long COVID&rsquo; is crucial.</p> <p>The long COVID&rsquo;s prognostic challenges: As apparent, the &lsquo;long COVID&rsquo; afflictions are more common than realized earlier. The symptoms can escalate in patients with co-morbid conditions. The persistent symptoms among COVID-19 survivors pose new challenges to the healthcare providers and may be suitably managed with a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, and holistic healthcare.</p> 探索COVID-19:相关的蛋白质传染性、致病性和免疫原性 01/27/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1029.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 life cycle: The disease which reportedly began in Chinese city Wuhan in November-December 2019 manifesting as severe respiratory illness, soon spread to various parts of the world, and was named COVID-19, and declared a pandemic by WHO. The life cycle of SARS-CoV-2 begins with membrane fusion mediated by Spike (S) protein binding to the ACE2 receptors. Following viral entry and release of genome into the host cell cytoplasm there occurs replication and transcription to generate viral structural and non-structural proteins. Finally, VLPs are produced and the mature virions are released from the host cell.</p> <p>Immunogenicity of the spike protein: The S protein is considered the main antigenic component among structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and responsible for inducing the host immune response. The neutralising antibodies (nAbs) targeting the S protein are produced and may confer a protective immunity against the viral infection. Further, the role of the S protein in infectivity also makes it an important tool for diagnostic antigen-based testing and vaccine development. The S-specific antibodies, memory B and circulating TFH cells are consistently elicited following SARS-CoV-2 infection, and COVID-19 vaccine shots in clinical trials.</p> <p>The emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants: The early genomic variations in SARS-CoV-2 have gone almost unnoticed having lacked an impact on disease transmission or its clinical course. Some of the recently discovered mutations, however, have impact on transmissibility, infectivity, or immune response. One such mutation is the D614G variant, which has increased in prevalence to currently become the dominant variant world-over. Another, relatively new variant, named VUI-202012/01 or B.1.1.7 has acquired 17 genomic alterations and carries the risk of enhanced infectivity. Further, its potential impact on vaccine efficacy is a worrisome issue.</p> <p>Conclusion: THE UNMET CHALLENGES: COVID-19 as a disease and SARS-CoV-2 as its causative organism, continue to remain an enigma. While we continue to explore the agent factors, disease transmission dynamics, pathogenesis and clinical spectrum of the disease, and therapeutic modalities, the grievous nature of the disease has led to emergency authorizations for COVID-19 vaccines in various countries. Further, the virus may continue to persist and afflict for years to come, as future course of the disease is linked to certain unknown factors like effects of seasonality on virus transmission and unpredictable nature of immune response to the disease.</p> 在COVID-19疫苗发展阶段:复仇女神,傲慢和Elpis 12/22/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1028.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>The nemesis: SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: Leaving in its wake millions of infections, accompanied by an immense magnitude of morbidity and multitude of mortality, and an unfathomable economic toll, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to a global calamity. An effective and safe COVID-19 vaccine is urgently needed to prevent the disease, thwart the complications and avert deaths resulting from unrestrained transmission of the infection.</p> <p>The hubris: Vaccine development: While most of the platforms of vaccine candidates have focused on the spike (S) protein and its variants as the primary antigen of COVID-19 infection, various techniques involved include nucleic acid technologies (RNA and DNA), non-replicating viral vectors, peptides, recombinant proteins, live attenuated and inactivated viruses. There are novel vaccine technologies being developed using next-generation strategies for precision and flexibility for antigen manipulation relating to SARS-CoV-2 infection mechanisms.</p> <p>The elpis: Updates and prospects: There were nine different technology platforms under research and development to create an effective vaccine against COVID 19. Although there are no licensed vaccines against COVID-19 yet, there are various potential vaccine candidates under development and advanced clinical trials. Out of them, one having undergone phase III clinical trials, has become available in some countries for use among the high-risk groups following emergency use authorization. Other COVID-19 vaccines may soon follow the suit.</p> <p>Conclusion: Hopes and concerns: The hope of benefiting from the vaccine to the extent that it may be the only way to tide over and control the COVID-19 pandemic, is accompanied by the likely fear of adverse effects and opposition in public for COVID-19 vaccination, including the vaccine hesitancy. Further, there is concern among scientific circles that vaccine may have opposite of the desired effect by causing antibody-dependent disease enhancement.</p> 方铅矿的医院实验室COVID-19紧急:一个发达国家的实践经验 10/31/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1027.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2>& lt; p>在实际COVID-19紧急状态,作为大流行性疾病,同时在许多国家有快速需要使用预防和治疗措施,控制感染的扩散。;/ p>& lt; p>在个人电脑领域(意大利北部)在2020年3月至5月之间,事实上,观察COVID-19相关的死亡人数大约有1000人死亡(2020年3月+ 271% vs 2019)。所有提交的测量之间公共卫生组织等国际机构,OMS,疾控中心和许多其他的深入使用消毒剂产品在安全程序和协议成为一个重要的事实。需要大量的消毒剂和防腐剂尤其是在医院或吸收结构(命名为COVID-19医院)也为领土医疗需要。所以需要购买这个产品也开始从行业内部生产在方铅矿的实验室。因为没有提供制药行业在某些情况下的请求数量,“和”,生命安全的产品。在这工作是实践经验在一家公立医院,个人电脑领域相关的方铅矿的额外普通消毒剂和antispetics的生产。本地经验经验的结果可以很容易地转换成世界上其他国家(先进或也不先进)。;/ p> COVID-19照顾和保护的智障患者,需要特别的照顾和股票 10/13/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1026.php <p>Since December 2019, entire world is facing problem of corona-virus pandemics and its impact on the people and their social life has been phenomenal.</p> COVID-19大流行,反复暴发和同化hCoV-19到人类基因组的前景 10/12/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1025.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>The outbreaks and resurgence: The disease which reportedly began in the Chinese city Wuhan in November-December 2019, soon spread to various parts of the world, and was named and declared a pandemic disease by WHO. While the European countries were recovering from the epidemic, the disease took hold in the USA, the South American countries, Arabian countries, and South Asian countries, predominantly affecting Brazil, Peru, Iran, and India. Presently, many European countries are witnessing a resurgence and recurrent outbreaks of COVID-19.</p> <p>Spread and evolving new insights: Whereas there is workplace-related infection rise as people are returning to their offices, in other places the outbreaks are related to the people crowding and meeting care-freely and trying to resort back to their earlier way of life. The reopening of the educational facilities across the continents may make matters worse.</p> <p>Impact on health and healthcare: Most cases of COVID-19 infections go unnoticed and are followed by self-recovery. But what may appear good from the clinical perspective, appears to complicate epidemiological efforts to contain the outbreak. With the evolving information about the disease, there seem to be certain possible outcomes such as control and containment, or the persistence of the disease as global endemic accompanied with outbreaks and resurgent episodes.</p> <p>Gnetic factors linked to disease severity: With the COVID-19 pandemic, not all infected patients develop a severe respiratory illness. Further, there is a large variation in disease severity, which may be due to the genetic factors underlying the variable response to the virus. It is becoming clear that apart from the advanced age and pre-existing conditions, certain genetic constituent factors render some patients more vulnerable to the more severe forms of the diseases.</p> <p>Integration of virus into human genome: A significant part of the human genome is derived from viruses especially the RNA viruses. In fact, about 8 percent of the human genome is made up of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are viral gene sequences that have become a permanent part of the human lineage after they infected our ancient ancestors. With this background, a novel concept emerging that if COVID-19 persists for several generations, its genetic material is projected to be integrated or assimilated into human genome. The involved mechanisms are conceptualized through the transposons or transposable elements of the SARS-CoV-2.</p> 预期的第二波COVID-19 09/03/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1024.php <p>The pandemic of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to rise around the globe. As per 15th July 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported 13,119,239 confirmed COVID-19 cases along with 573,752 confirmed deaths globally [1].</p> 血脂抗逆转录病毒therapy-naive传染病感染艾滋病毒的病人参加服务大学教学医院的金沙萨,刚果民主共和国(DRC) 08/26/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1023.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p><strong>Introduction:</strong> HIV infection leads to metabolic disorders. The objective of this work was to study the lipid profile of HIV + patients followed at the University Teaching Hospital of Kinshasa (UTHK).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study analyzes the lipid profile of HIV + patients, aged at least 18 years, followed at the UTHK from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2014. The medians of different types of lipids, the frequency of lipid disorders, the general clinical characteristics of patients and factors associated with dyslipidaemia were studied. Haemoglobin (Hb), White Blood Cells (WBC), Leukocyte Formula (LF), Blood Sugar, Urea, Creatinine, Transaminases, Uric Acid, CD4s+ count were analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The lipid balance was performed in 38.8% of patients; 38.1% of them had dyslipidaemia. Total hypercholesterolaemia (28.6%), elevated LDL-C (19%), hypertriglyceridemia (23.8%) and HDL hypocholesterolaemia (42.9%) were observed. The medians of TG (128 mg / dL), HDL-C (51 mg/dL) and LDL-C (78 mg/dL) were high. Risk factors associated with dyslipidaemia were represented by WHO stage 4, tuberculosis (TB) and hyperglycaemia. The highest levels of LDL-C and TG and the lowest HDL-C were seen when CD4s+ were below 200 elements/&micro;L.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The HIV/AIDS dyslipidaemia characterized in this study by HDL-C hypocholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridemia and total and LDL hypercholesterolemia can be considered as an indicator of the progression of HIV infection.</p> 血清学和病毒学的慢性乙型肝炎患者感染在厄立特里亚 07/24/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1022.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p><strong>Background: </strong>Hepatitis B virus infection is a major cause of liver associated morbidity and mortality with diverse spectrum of disease. It is estimated about 15% to 40% of patients with hepatitis B virus infection progress to chronic hepatitis and about 15% to 25% die from disease complications. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the serological and virological markers of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection to determine the natural history of chronic hepatitis B infection in the Eritrean setting.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A laboratory-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 305 patients with HBsAg positive who presented to Orotta National Referral Hospital, Halibet Hospital, Sembel Hospital and National Health Laboratory in Asmara, Eritrea from January 2017 to February 2019. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to detect hepatitis B serological markers (anti-HBc, HBsAg, anti-HBsAb, HBeAg and anti-HBeAg). Hepatitis B DNA viral loads and liver transaminase levels were determined. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 25.0.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 305 patients presented with HBsAg positive serology with a mean age of 41.3 (&plusmn; 13.7) years ranging from 16 to 78 years. Males were 218 (71.5%) and females 87 (28. 5%).Anti-HBc was positive in 300 (98.4%), of which 293 (97.5%) were positive for HBsAg and 7 (2.3%) positive for anti-HBs. Among these 293 patients, 20 (6.8%) were HBeAg positive/anti-HBe positive, 242 (82.6%) HBeAg-negative/anti-HBe-positive and 31 (10.6%) were HBeAg negative/anti-HBe-positive. Detectable HBV DNA was found in 122(41.6%) of the 293 cases. Alanine transaminase was normal in 90% of HBeAg-positive and in 91.2% of HBeAg-negative patients. Hepatitis B DNA viral load was &gt;2,000 IU/mL in 67 (22.86%) and &gt;200,000 IU/mL level was more frequently detected in HBeAg positive (20.0%) compared to HBeAg negative (1.8%) subjects (p &lt; 0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study shows predominance of HBeAg-negative and low replication phase of HBV infection among patients in Eritrea. It also documented that most patients had chronic infection with normal liver transaminase levels in the absence of biochemical signs of hepatitis. This study will provide a basis for therapeutic evaluation of patients and planning national treatment guidelines in the Eritrean setting.</p> 一个全面的综述COVID-19基因组多样性和流行病学 07/22/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1021.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>A respiratory outbreak of COVID-19 started from Wuhan, China and on 30 January 2020, WHO declared this infection to be epidemic, implementing public health emergency worldwide. On 11th March 2020, observing its prevalence in the whole world and WHO declared as a pandemic. Many countries completely collapse in the grip of this pandemic, as there are no effective treatments available, the precaution is the sole remedy to minimize this infection. The emergence and pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 (since the SARS-CoV in 2002 and MERS-CoV in 2012] manifest the third time outline of highly contagious and pathogenic infection with infect-ability to spread globally in the twentieth-first century. The SARS CoV-2 genome is highly identical to bat coronavirus which is considered to be the perfect natural host. This coronavirus even utilizes the same ACE2 receptor as SARS-CoV and mainly spread the infection to the respiratory tract, which evidently showed that transmission of this virus through interactions and exposures. The death toll of these infected patients is increasing day by day especially when they have prehistory fatal diseases like cardiovascular, diabetics, and respiratory diseases. In this review, we summarized and explained the research progressed and available data on epidemiology, COVID-19 phylogenetic relation and its impact of different fatal disease and their relation and discuss the precautionary methods to combat this pandemic. Moreover, the pieces of evidence of spreading the virus through pets and prevention of being spreading by copper metal endorsement.</p> 吸入他汀类药物来对抗COVID-19€”预防和治疗方法 06/12/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1020.php <p>The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a highly transmittable and pathogenic viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which emerged in Wuhan, China and spread around the world (WHO, 2020). The genome of the SARS-CoV-2 has been reported over 80% identical to the previous human coronavirus (SARS-like bat CoV) [1]. As of May 2020, more than 5 million people have been affected worldwide with deaths amounting to 333000, the numbers increasing at an alarming rate day by day.</p> 房子可以飞机械携带和/或运输sars-cov-2吗? 06/11/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1019.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2>& lt; p>新冠状病毒SARS-CoV-2导致不同人感染已成为人类面临的一个挑战,因为它已经在世界范围内造成许多人死亡。这种新病毒被认为是一种人畜共患传染病粒子,的明确机制这种病毒的致病性和传播能力并不完全清楚。因此,这里的一些特点的房子飞。你们可能的传播进行了分析;/ p> COVID-19:可能的医疗策略 06/09/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1018.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>In late 2019, a pandemic crisis started in Wuhan, China, swept the whole world. The disease is caused by the SARS-CoV-19 virus that belongs to the corona family of viruses. The virus mainly caused failure of respiration, and led to many deaths worldwide. The main focus of research and medicine is to find more about the virus, as well as the development of effective preventive and therapeutic measures. While many trials and opinions have been published, which might support or contradict each other, this article tries to provide a simplified viewpoint about the disease. We highly recommend the therapeutic strategies to include drug combinations that can target the pathogenesis at many levels. For example, a combination of an effective anti-viral Remdesivir, soulable ACE2, and an immune modulator.</p> 纳米技术在诊断和治疗中的作用COVID-19流感大流行期间 05/27/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1017.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), began in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. To date, the virus has infected roughly 5,000,000 people and caused approximately 345,000 deaths worldwide, and these numbers are increasing rapidly. Because of the rapid spread and the rising disease burden, several antiviral drugs and immunomodulators are in clinical trials, but no drugs or vaccines have yet been approved against this deadly pandemic. At present, computed tomography scanning and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR are used to diagnose COVID-19, and nanotechnology is being used to develop drugs against COVID-19. Nanotechnology also plays a role in diagnosing COVID-19. In this article, we discuss the role of nanotechnology in diagnosing and potentially treating COVID-19.</p> 识别模式COVID-19:发病率,复苏和善后事宜 05/25/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1016.php & lt; p> Abstract< / p>& lt; p> & lt; strong>传染性和发病机理:& lt; / strong>SARS-CoV-2 Covid-19的病原体,包括血管紧张素转换酶2 (ACE2)受体2型(at₂) II型肺泡细胞在肺部。除了,上下呼吸道疾病影响胃肠道系统突出,重要的消化系统症状,证明了在病程早期。此外,病毒感染ACE2-bearing细胞在其他器官包括心脏和血管,大脑和肾脏。;/ p>& lt; p> & lt; strong>临床特征和发病率:& lt; / strong>COVID-19变化从无症状的临床表现或pauci-symptomatic表示中度到重度的状态表现为呼吸衰竭需要机械通气和ICU支持那些展现关键临床条件与败血症等并发症,感染性休克和多器官功能障碍的失败。胸部CT是早期识别的一个重要工具COVID-19肺炎以及预后的目的。你们;/ p>& lt; p> & lt; strong>复苏和剩余伤害:& lt; / strong>经济复苏和其他结果取决于年龄和其他方面包括性别、并存病,遗传因素。 The outlook for older adults, who account for a disproportionate share of critical disease, is unfavorable, and most of those who survive are unlikely to return to their previous level of functioning. The disease affects their long-term health and quality of life as well as brings in propensity for truncated post-disease survival.</p> <p><strong>COVID-19 aftermath and follow up:</strong> The patients discharged from hospital following severe COVID-19, continue to suffer with lingering impact of the disease as well as that of the emergency treatments that saved their life. The post-infection reduced exercise tolerance and other subtle factors, like post viral fatigue syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder, impaired concentration, delirium, and disturbed sleep-wake cycle often underly the functional impairment. In fact, there is need of step-down care and later a multidisciplinary support involving regular clinical assessment, respiratory review, physiotherapy, nutritional advice, and psychiatric support.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The life after COVID-19: After recovery from the disease, the virus SARS-CoV-2, may persist for uncertain period. In addition, the chance of reinfection cannot be ruled out. The vitamin D supplementation may be helpful. In general, the quality of life (QOL) in ICU survivors improves but remains lower than general population levels, but most of the patients adapt well to their level of self-sufficiency and QOL. Also, the debility due to co-morbidities may further compromise the activity of daily living and QOL issues. The Age and severity of illness appear to be the major predictors of post-discharge physical functioning.</p> 冒险性行为在年轻成年人€”基于横断面人口调查研究在巴巴多斯 05/25/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1015.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2>& lt; p> & lt; strong>背景:& lt; / strong>The National Strategic Plan for HIV Prevention and Control 2014-2018 recognized the need for the utilization of research findings to guide the development of HIV policies, programs and interventions for the general population and key population groups and to inform the allocation of government resources to the areas of greatest impact and need. To this end, a Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Sexual Practices Survey (KABP) was conducted among adults&rsquo; ages 15 to 49 years.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To identify the sexual behaviors among adolescents and young adults that exposed them to the risks of HIV/STIs and to identify factors that may have to be addressed, in order to achieve further reduction in the spread of HIV in this population.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This is a population based cross-sectional survey undertaken in 2016. Sample was taken from among persons&rsquo; ages 15 &ndash; 49 years using a multistage sampling methodology. The survey questionnaire was developed from Family Health International&rsquo;s guidelines for repeated behavioral surveys in populations at risk of HIV. It was interviewer-administered and consisted of ninety-nine (99) closed-ended questions. The topics covered by the survey included sexual history; use of and access to condoms; and HIV testing. Participants were asked about their sexual behaviors over the last 12 months, and about their experience with their most recent partner.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Overall, 87.8% described themselves as heterosexual, 1.2% as bisexual and 0.5% as homosexual. By the age 16, 17 1nd 19 years 25%, 50% and 75% of respondents have had sex respectively. Among the 763 respondents reporting vaginal or anal sex over the past 12 months, 80.6 and 19.4% had a single and multiple sex partner respectively. Also, 94.4%, 13.3% and 1.6% reported to have regular, non-regular and commercial sex partners respectively. Overall, 54.6% used condom at the last sex, the corresponding figure for the regular and non-regular partners were 41.2% 80.8% respectively. Only 40.9% reported to have had a HIV test done over the past 12 months and of those who did not, 42.8% had never been tested for HIV.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Inconsistent and infrequent condom use and low HIV testing especially among the adolescents and younger adults, in the setting of young ages at sexual debut and multiple sexual partners. Findings form this study strongly recommends for a much greater effort from the public health at promoting condom use and HIV testing especially targeting the younger persons who risk their own protection and that of their partners.</p> COVID-19:针对通过胆碱能抗炎细胞因子风暴(吡斯的明) 05/21/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1014.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2>& lt; p> & lt; strong>背景:& lt; / strong>The development of COVID-19 having been set apart as the third presentation of an exceptionally pathogenic coronavirus into the human populace after the extreme intense SARS-COV and MERS-COV in the twenty-first century. The infection itself doesn&rsquo;t make a crucial commitment to mortality, anyway &ldquo;cytokine storm&rdquo; created by the unreasonable invulnerable reaction activated by the virus can result in a hyperinflammatory response of lung tissues and deadly lung injury, and in this way increment death rate. In this manner, immunomodulatory medications ought to likewise be remembered for treatment of COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Presentation of the hypothesis: </strong>The virus particles invade the respiratory mucosa firstly and infect other cells, triggering a series of immune responses and the production of cytokine storm in the body, which may be associated with the critical condition of COVID-19 patients. Once a cytokine storm is formed, the immune system may not be able to kill the virus, but it will certainly kill many normal cells in the lung, which will seriously damage the of lung function. Patients will have respiratory failure until they die of hypoxia. It is not yet clear what the death rate of Covid-19 will be, though the best estimate right now is that it is around 1 percent, 10 times more lethal than seasonal flu due to cytokines storm which trigger a violent attack by the immune system to the body, cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure, and finally lead to death in severe cases of COVID-19 infection. Therefore, inhibiting cytokine storm can significantly reduce inflammatory injury in lung tissues.<br /> Pyridostigmine (PDG), cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) is a neural mechanism that modulates inflammation through the release of acetylcholine (ACh), resulting in decreased synthesis of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-&alpha; and IL-1. This finding emphasis, the nervous and immune systems work collaboratively during infection and inflammation.</p> <p><strong>Implications of the hypothesis: </strong>Administrations of Pyridostigmine (PDG) as cholinergic agonist inhibits the inflammatory response and lower the mortality of COVID-19 patients. Likewise, activation of the CAP during systemic inflammation down-regulates the production and release of inflammatory cytokines.</p> 探索COVID-19感染的病理生理学:人造艾丝珀和休眠的治疗选项 05/06/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1013.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p><strong>COVID-19 virus structural components:</strong> The 2019-nCoV, also called SARS-CoV-2, was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The disease was named Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the virus responsible for it as the COVID-19 virus, respectively, by WHO. The 2019-nCoV has a round, elliptic or pleomorphic form with a diameter of 60&ndash;140 nm. It has single-stranded RNA genome containing 29891 nucleotides, a lipid shell, and spike, envelope, membrane and hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) proteins.</p> <p><strong>Steps in progression of COVID-19 illness:</strong> Once inside the airways, the S protein on the viral surface recognizes and mediates the attachment to host ACE-2 receptors and gains access to endoplasmic reticulum. The HE protein facilitates the S protein-mediated cell entry and virus spread through the mucosa, helping the virus to attack the ACE2-bearing cells lining the airways and infecting upper as well as lower respiratory tracts. With the dying cells sloughing down and filling the airways, the virus is carried deeper into the lungs. In addition, the virus is able to infect ACE2-bearing cells in other organs, including the blood vessels, gut and kidneys. With the viral infestation, the activated immune system leads to inflammation, pyrexia and pulmonary edema. The hyperactivated immune response, called cytokine storm in extreme cases, can damage various organs apart from lungs and increases susceptibility to infectious bacteria especially in those suffering from chronic diseases.</p> <p><strong>The current therapeutics for COVID-19:</strong> At present, there is no specific antiviral treatment available for the disease. The milder cases may need no treatment. In moderate to severe cases, the clinical management includes infection prevention and control measures, and symptomatic and supportive care, including supplementary oxygen therapy. In the critically ill patients, mechanical ventilation is required for respiratory failure and hemodynamic support is imperative for managing circulatory failure and septic shock.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Confusion, despair and hopes: There is no vaccine for preexposure prophylaxis or postexposure management. There are no specific approved drugs for the treatment for the disease. A number of drugs approved for other conditions as well as several investigational drugs are being canned and studied in several clinical trials for their likely role in COVID-19 prophylaxis or treatment. The future seems afflicted with dormant therapeutic options as well as faux Espoir or false hopes. As obvious, not all clinical trials will be successful, but having so many efforts in progress, some may succeed and provide a positive solution. Right now, though, confusion and despair prevail.</p> 也门COVID-19是免费的 04/29/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1012.php & lt; p>在所有的国家中,冠状病毒的也门是免费的,没有单一的情况下记录直到今天。也门的特点是其母亲在红海的地理位置,人口大约有3000万人,面积€喜爱一个€喜爱555000平方公里。;/ p> 普通感冒和流感的心理学:对COVID-19的影响 04/20/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1011.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Research on psychological risk factors for upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs) has been conducted for over fifty years. Early studies failed to control for exposure and also often relied on self-report rather than clinical and virological assessment. A universal policy used in the current COVID-19 pandemic has been to restrict exposure by social isolation. This leads to increased stress and removal of social interaction. In addition, information overload about the disease, and incorrect information, can also reduce wellbeing. Studies of experimentally-induced URTIs have shown that stress increases susceptibility to infection. Other research has shown that stress due to job insecurity and few social contacts are key risk factors for infection. This suggests that while social isolation will reduce exposure, it will also lead to an increased risk of illnesses, due to increased stress and reduced social support, should the person become infected with the virus. Other research has shown that infection and illness lead to changes in behaviour. These effects include greater negative affect and impaired attention and slower speed of response. Such effects are not only present when the person is symptomatic but also occur with sub-clinical infections, during the incubation period and after the illness. People with the illness are also more sensitive to other negative influences such as fatigue, and this has implications for safety critical jobs such as those carried out by healthcare professionals treating those with COVID-19.</p> 维生素D在大流行应对gripal病毒产生抗体吗?一个关键的分析 04/07/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1010.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>In the evolutionary journey of humanity, it is possible to verify an analysis of pandemics with high occurrences. This study aims to conduct a critical analysis of the role of Vitamin D as an endogenous vaccine in the main viruses present in humanity over the decades. To construct this text, we used the short review methodology through a critical analysis. This study demonstrated the importance of using Vitamin D as an endogenous vaccine when used frequently in both healthcare professionals and patients. Therefore, it is concluded that Vitamin acts protectively in the innate immune system.</p> 假设Sars-COV-2的致病作用 03/27/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1009.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2>& lt; p>假设出生在一个简单的临床数据指出,一些中国下在流行的起点始于2019年的明天,为小说的人类冠状病毒,正式命名为撒尔沙€CoVa€2(严重急性呼吸系统综合症冠状病毒2)由国际委员会分类法(ICTV)是一种新型的病毒RNA病毒以前没有发现人类[1]。冠和非典CoV-2有临床差异。第一:非典,严重急性呼吸系统对诱导宿主免疫活性的呼吸道疾病,虽然可以引起严重的感染婴儿,儿童和老年人;中间Sars-CoV-2诱发感染到孩子但成年人口的死亡率比较高。我们macthing balst p序列,非典COV-2了资源库与甲型H1N1流感病毒神经氨酸酶和非结构蛋白NS1 NS2的干扰素拮抗剂也可能刺激促炎细胞因子在感染细胞,我们可以推测,突变是发生在配件蛋白质在不同的两个物种之间的毒性作用Sars浸和非典COV-2,同样的行动我们成立于2019年的H1N1病毒大流行。;/ p> 伪麻黄碱保护小鼠免受感染甲型H1N1流感病毒 02/28/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1008.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2>& lt; p>麻黄,一个古老的草药,用于治疗感冒和流感在中国这么长时间。伪麻黄碱是麻黄属植物的主要活性成分用于临床缓解鼻塞。我们以前报道,除了拟交感的伪麻黄碱显示强大的消炎作用效果。在目前的研究中,我们的目的是调查是否可以保护小鼠免受伪麻黄碱H1N1病毒感染。老鼠感染20% LD50甲型流感病毒(IAV)悬架通过鼻内政府建立一个病毒感染模型。此外,小鼠口服接种伪麻黄碱或奥司他韦在感染后4天的一天。我们的研究结果表明,伪麻黄碱改善肺部病理损害IVA感染期间,它极大地提高了生存率和减体重的损失与病毒感染对照组。此外,抑制了细胞因子风暴和伪麻黄碱的mrna表达TLR7信号通路。令人惊讶的是,伪麻黄碱IAV的复制有抑制作用。 These results give clear evidence that pseudoephedrine is a potential anti-influenza drug by blunting cytokine storms and inhibition of replication of IAV, and following these results, we speculate that it should be tested in the novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19, a severe epidemic in China currently) in which the cytokine storms play a key role to damage bronchi and lung in the early stage.</p> 风疹感染:进步和挑战来自于先天风疹综合症的诊断和预防 02/04/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1007.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Rubella remains an important pathogen worldwide, with many cases of congenital rubella syndrome per year. Rubella vaccination is included in the vaccination program of many countries. WHO has set goals for the elimination of measles and rubella and prevention of congenital rubella syndrome by 2020. Worldwide, the rubella vaccine is highly effective and safe, and as a result, endemic rubella transmission has been halted in the Americas since 2009. Incomplete rubella vaccination programs result in continuous disease transmission, as evidenced by major recent outbreaks in some countries around the world. In this review, we present the rubella control, elimination and eradication policies and a brief review of the rubella laboratory diagnosis.</p> 低灵敏度的careHPVa„¢化验检测宫颈样本中致癌人类乳头瘤病毒感染艾滋病毒和免疫肯尼亚妇女 01/30/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1006.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2>& lt; p> & lt; strong>背景:& lt; / strong>Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer (CC), a common malignancy among Kenyan women. New CC screening methods rely on oncogenic HPV (&ldquo;high-risk&rdquo;, or HR-HPV) detection, but most have not been evaluated in swabs from Kenyan women.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> HPV typing was performed on 155 cervical swabs from Kenyan women using the Roche Linear Array&reg; (LA) and careHPV&trade; (careHPV) assays. Detection of 14 oncogenic HPV types in careHPV assay was compared to LA results.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Compared to LA, sensitivity and specificity of careHPV assay was 53.0% and 80.9%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of careHPV in swabs from women with cervical dysplasia was 74.1% and 65.2%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of careHPV in swabs from HIV-infected women was 55.9% and of 96.4%, respectively. Overall agreements of careHPV assay with LA was substantial.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results for careHPV assay are promising for oncogenic HPV detection in Kenyan women. The low sensitivity of careHPV for detection of HR-HPV could limit it&rsquo;s benefit as a screening tool. Thus, a full clinical validation study is highly desirable before the careHPV assay can be accepted for cervical cancer screening.</p> 巨细胞病毒感染的频率在儿童肾病综合症 05/14/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1005.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2>& lt; p> & lt; strong>介绍和目的:& lt; / strong>特发性肾病综合征(INS)是最常见的一种疾病在儿童时期。微小病变性肾病综合症(价值)是最常见的组织病理学损伤(80年,mdash;儿童INS的90%),约90%的患者是类固醇响应,而先天性肾病综合征疾病,可能是由于一些疾病。宫内感染,特别是巨细胞病毒感染,经常被有罪为病因因素,次要的中枢神经系统。本研究的目的是探讨巨细胞病毒感染的频率活跃在我们的小儿肾病综合症患儿肾脏学unit&, & lt; / p>& lt; p> & lt; strong>病人和方法:& lt; / strong>这个描述(横截面)在小儿肾脏学研究单位,Zagazig大学医院,包括60 NS患者活动;参与者受到,完整的历史,临床检查; general &amp; local, Routine laboratory investigations and Serum samples were tested for HCMV specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) using ELISA Kit.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> We found 100% of cases were IgG positive and 7/60 cases were IgM positive, There were no statistically significant differences between IgM positive-patients vs IgM-negative patients according to age, sex and first attack or relapsed NS, There were statistically significant differences between IgM positive-patients vs IgM-negative patients in blood laboratory data in decreases in HB (P=0.024) and serum urea nitrogen (P=0.04)</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> We concluded that serofrequency of cytomegalovirus infection in pediatric nephrology unit, Zagazig university hospitals during follow-up was 12% for cmv IgM and 100% for cmv IgG at ns children patients.</p> 2014年的模型埃博拉病毒:西非的证据 05/02/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1004.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2><p>Outbreaks of Ebola virus can cause substantial mortality in affected countries. The largest outbreak of Ebola to date is currently underway in West Africa, with 3944 cases reported as of September 5, 2014. For the sake of deriving a better understanding of the Ebola transmission<br /> dynamics, we have undertaken to revisit data from the initial spark of origin of the Ebola virus, which occurred in 1976 in Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo). By fi tting a mathematical<br /> process to time series stratifi ed by disease onset, outcome and source of infection, we have managed to estimate several epidemiological quantities, previously admitted to be too challenging to measure, including hospital and infected community contribution infection to the widespread transmission.</p> 确定seroprevalence和相关危险因素乙型肝炎病毒感染的孕妇和它与哈尔格萨集团医院输血,哈尔格萨,索马里兰 04/19/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1003.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2>& lt; p> & lt; strong>背景:& lt; / strong>管理的措施正在实施的乙型肝炎病毒(HBV)感染在哈尔格萨,索马里兰在孕妇仍是最容易发展为慢性肝炎。常规筛查孕妇因此所必需的有效控制。然而,常用的性能HBsAg血清测试条已经可用。同时,确定传播的危险因素在孕妇实施预防措施的重要性。因此,本研究的目的是确定seroprevalence和相关危险因素与乙肝病毒感染在孕妇。;/ p>& lt; p> & lt; strong>材料,amp;方法:& lt; / strong>研究区进行了在索马里兰的哈尔格萨集团医院从2018年5月到2018年12月。 The researcher was collected research pregnancy woman data through questionnaire &amp; used diagnostics methods such as Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) test, antibodies test (HBsAb) by used anti-card test and ELIZA system. In order to find specific full information&rsquo;s about patients &amp; relationship the associated risk factors with hepatitis B in pregnancy. Data processed and analyzed by used both words and SPSS package. The sample size investigated was 80 patients. Of these, 28 were excluded; among the reasons for exclusion were prior HBV vaccination and known HBsAg sero-positive status.</p> <p><strong>Aims of Study:</strong> The study was designed &amp; aimed to determine seroprevalence and associated factors of HBV infection among pregnant women. To assess and establish if there is significant relationship between blood transfusion and hepatitis B virus at Hargeisa group hospital (HGH).&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion:</strong> The results in the current study shown that the pregnancy with hepatitis BV and it relation with appeared some symptoms in our study was 24(46.15%) of patients appeared they have cirrhosis symptom, 12(23.08%) of patients answered they have liver failure, while 9(17.31%) of patients appeared yellowish of eyes &amp; skin and 5(9.62%) showed hepatic cancer.</p> <p>Overall, HBV prevalence: HBsAg was detected in fifteen 15(31.3%) of the participants while all fifteen (100%) had total HBcAb (both IgM and IgG). Of the HBsAg sero-positive women, 26(42.7%) were positive for HBeAg; eight (13.3%) were positive for HBeAb and four 4(9%) were negative for both HBeAg and HBeAb which was close similar with other previous studies. On the other hand, We found identify statistically significant p-values&thinsp;&lt;&thinsp;0.05 and high relationship between HBV and some demographic and clinical risk factors such as blood transfusions, levels of knowledge about HBV infection in addition to age and marital status.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results of this study showed that the seroprevalence of HBV infections in pregnant women and it relationship with blood transfusion in Hargeisa Group Hospital, Hargeisa, Somaliland is high. However, further studies are needed to assess the role of other demographic and clinical risk. Urgent action is required to improve hepatitis B infection control measures to reduce dependence on blood transfusions and make new policies for treatment of anemia in HGH.</p> 揭示肠道virome在人类健康和疾病 01/19/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1002.php <h2>Introduction</h2> <p>Due to the advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies, the gut vriome is increasingly being perceived as one important component of the gut microbiome, where the number of viral biological entities is believed to far outcompetes that of the bacterial populations [1,2].&nbsp;The human virome are primarily composed of bacteriophages, animal-cell viruses, endogenous retroviruses and viruses causing persistent and latent infections. Collectively they contains a more diverse genetic entity than the gut bacteria [3,4]. While the composition of them in the gut is precipitately being revealed, their roles in human health remain largely unexplored. It is undeniable that certain gut viruses are deleterious to human health. Interestingly, enteric viruses however, in some cases, can recapitulate the beneficial effects of commensal bacteria through different mechanisms, including modulating the innate and adaptive immunity of the host [5-7].</p> 抗病毒活性的桉树叶子camaldulensis ethanolic提取疱疹病毒感染 10/13/2017//m.lakotalakes.com/hjcv/ijcv-aid1001.php & lt; h2> Abstract< / h2>& lt; p>桉树camaldulensis (Ec)被认为是传统的药用植物有价值的治疗效果。我们评估ethanolic离开的抗病毒活性提取物在不同的疱疹病毒。维洛细胞被感染的测试病毒(单纯疱疹病毒1和2(1型单纯疱疹病毒,HSV-2)和水痘一带状疱疹病毒(带状疱疹)]有或没有治疗与Ec提取和病毒感染发展被空斑实验评估。我们的结果显示重要的抗病毒活性研究提取对所有病毒进行测试。80%甲醇比例的提取提供了最高的活动对这些病毒有50%抑制浓度(IC50)为0.1,plusmn; 0.08, 0.3, plusmn; 0.02和1,plusmn; 0.03,μ;对1型单纯疱疹病毒g / ml,分别HSV-2和带状疱疹和50%的细胞毒性(CC50) 700年,μg / ml。得到这个分数最高的抗病毒效应主要是添加和post期间感染时(p)或当它只增加了pi工作。同时,这个分数的数量明显减少感染性内源性病毒颗粒在细胞治疗80%甲醇分数只有病毒进入宿主细胞。协同抗病毒效应对所有测试病毒也观察到当细胞治疗的联合无环鸟苷(ACV)和80%甲醇Ec的分数。进一步的研究需要抗病毒活性成分的分离和鉴定/ s的一部分。你们;/ p>