临床微生物学和生物化学技术的国际期刊 //m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt Heighpubs开放获金博宝app体育取期刊上 en - us 精神分析学说的急性肺炎 04/29/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt/ijcmbt-aid1023.php <p>It is difficult to predict how the founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, would react to an attempt to link his theory and the method of treating mental disorders based on it [1], with such a purely physical disease as acute pneumonia (AP).</p> 乙型肝炎和丙型肝炎的发病率在3月2 ed教学医院儿科病房,南部塞卜哈:利比亚 04/28/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt/ijcmbt-aid1022.php <h2>Abstract</h2> <p>Objective: to determine the incidence of HBV and HCV in pediatric ward.<br /> Sitting: 2ed March teaching hospital, sebha Libya.</p> <p>Materials and Methods: this was a prospective hospital base study of pediatric cases admitted to 2ed March teaching hospital during a period from March 2018 to February 2019. Pediatric cases were studied for the incidence of HBsAg and HCV Ab by ELISA, Rapid technique. The positive result was confirmed with line immuno-assay.</p> <p>Results: the study showed positive HBsAg in 12 patients and HCV in 2 cases out 25 cases represented with acute hepatitis from a total of 1763 pediatric cases were submitted in this study, with incidence rate of 0.68% and 0.11% respectively.</p> <p>Conclusion: the incidence of HBV and HCV are low in Sebha, therefore active program need to be applied to control the spread of infection among the population.</p> 冠状病毒COVID-19表面性质:电荷状态 04/13/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt/ijcmbt-aid1021.php <h2>Abstract</h2> <p>Aim of this work is to analyze the coronavirus viral surface properties related the pattern of electrical features.</p> <p>This chemical physical property is relevant and crucial to set profile of diffusion, severity of disease, efficacy of therapeutic strategy and in order to search new way to fight COVID-19 and the NEW VARIANT.</p> <p>The phenomena of immune evasion and the different pattern of efficacy towards variants of some vaccine or some antibodies combination produce the need to verify if considering the electrical feature of viral surface can be a right tool or not.</p> <p>As result of this research it is possible to submit to the scientist that the viral surface properties and electrical feature can be an element to be considered in various preventive or treatment measure.</p> <p>The specificity of action of some vaccine or antibodies seem to tell us that also the aspecific methods are useful.</p> <p>A specific chemico physical factors can influence the electrical charges viral surface behavior.</p> <p>Hpertonic saline solution, humidity, electrical charge barrier in mask are simply example of the effect.</p> <p>That can be obtained action on viral surface chemico -physical properties.</p> 进一步阐述了演示Acanthamoeba角膜炎的COVID-19流行环境的特别关注 03/18/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt/ijcmbt-aid1020.php <h2>Abstract</h2> <p>This article presents an overview of information regarding Acanthamoeba keratitis per epidemiology, host-pathogen interactions, clinical manifestations, risk factors, environmental implications, diagnosis, treatment and management as well as COVID-19 characteristics which may be taken into cognizance for suspected infected patients, researchers and ophthalmologic practitioners. Acanthamoeba spp. is pathogenetically ubiquitous in nature. Acanthamoeba keratitis is considerably an ocular-threatening and debilitating keratitis that exhibits contumacious characteristics which hinder or impede treatment or management. At inception, Acanthamoeba generally depicts atypical clinical features which are frequently misdiagnosed as other microbial keratitis. Fundamentally, it constitutes a rare corneal infection of which the aetiologic agent is the protozoon Acanthamoeba spp. in contact lens wearers, presenting features of severe ophthalmic distress, blurred vision, blepharospasm, ocular excoriation, extraneous entity sensation and photophobia culminating in aberrant visual functionality. These are perspicuously due to retarded prompt and adequate treatment and management. Personal and environmental hygiene, especially on the hands, face and ocular areas as advised for the COVID-19 protocol could prevent contamination and dissemination of Acanthamoeba keratitis infection. The differentiating relatedness of Acanthamoeba keratitis, COVID-19 ophthalmologic infections and other ocular problems may not have been clearly elucidated.</p> 化学成分和生物活性的面包果heterophyllus lam(榴莲):一个回顾 01/20/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt/ijcmbt-aid1019.php <h2>Abstract</h2> <p>Artocarpus (Moraceae) is a deciduous tree with appreciable importance as a source of edible fruit and is widely used in folk medicines. The extracts and metabolites of Artocarpus heterophyllus particularly those from leaves, bark, stem and fruit possess several useful bioactive compounds. This review indents to compile various studies on A. heterophyllus and critically evaluates its ethnomedical and ethnopharmacological properties. Several pharmacological studies from A. heterophyllus have conclusively established their mode of action in anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities. Based on the available data, it is concluded that Artocarpus as a promising source of useful products and opens up new avenues for novel therapeutics.</p> Cystoisosporiasis的临床病理和免疫活性的,免疫力低下,感染艾滋病毒/艾滋病患者,但忽视SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19病人吗? 01/20/2021//m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt/ijcmbt-aid1018.php <h2>Abstract</h2> <p>Cystoisosporiasis (formerly isosporiasis) is caused by Cystoisospora belli (erstwhile named Isospora belli) is encountered globally, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Cystoisosporiasis is a human intestinal disease whose etiology is the parasite Cystoisospora belli with infection frequent in immunocompromised subjects, principally HIV-infected and AIDS patients. This coccidium parasite infects the epithelial cells and lining of the villi of the small and large intestines. C. belli is the least frequent of the three intestinal coccidia, viz: Cryptosporidium, microsporidium and C. belli which perturb humans. The clinical presentation of cystoisosporiasis gives a semblance of inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as other gastrointestinal symptoms, nausea, vomiting and diarhoea found in COVID-19, AIDS and HIV-infected patients. Research has not presented comorbid features of COVID-19 and cystoisosporiasis. The oocytes of C. belli are visualizable microscopically on wet mounts via bright-field, differential interference contrast (DIC) and epifluorescence. Trimethoprin sulfamethoxazole constitute the normal treatment of choice. C. belli,HIV-infected/AIDS and COVID-19 patients have clinicopathological correlates necessary to elucidate comorbidities and mechanisms of the diseases.</p> 抗生素敏感性测定的志贺氏杆菌物种与儿童急性腹泻 12/15/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt/ijcmbt-aid1017.php <h2>Abstract</h2> <p>Diarrheal diseases continue to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years. This study aimed to isolate, identify and determining the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Shigella sp associated with acute diarrhea among children in Kano, Northern Nigeria. A cross sectional study was conducted among children less than 5 years diagnosed with acute diarrhea and admitted to paediatric ward of Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital Kano. Stool samples from a total of 37 (20 male and 17 female) subjects were used to isolate and identified the pathogen. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was conducted using disc diffusion method. The result showed 12 out of 37 samples were positive for Shigella sp which accounted for 32.4%. Higher incidence of Shigella sp was found among subjects of age between 2 &ndash; 3 years. The isolates were 100% resistant to Ampicillin. High resistance was also observed in Amoxicillin (83.33%), Chloramphenicol (58.33%) and Tetracycline (25%). The isolates are 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin, 66.7% to Levofloxacin and Gentamicin each and 58.33% to Erythromycin. Three (3) isolates were resistance to Ampicillin and Amoxicillin, 5 isolates were resistance to Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol and Amoxicillin while 2 isolates were resistance to Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline and Amoxicillin. It is concluded that Shigella sp is one of the etiological agent of diarrhea in children. Ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and Gentamicin are drugs of choice for treating diarrhea caused by Shigella sp.</p> 回顾白粉藤属的功效quadrangularis药理机制 12/04/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt/ijcmbt-aid1016.php <h2>Abstract</h2> <p>Cissus quadrangularis a succulent vine belongs to Vitaceae family is widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world and used frequently to various disorders. The plant has been reported to contain flavonoids, triterpenoids, phytosterols, glycosides and rich source of calcium. This study aims to bring a systematic review of C. quadrangularis in various pharmacological mechanisms. Evidence from the previous studies suggested the efficacy of C. quadrangularis with antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, anti-oxidant, bone turnover, cardiovascular and hepatoprotective activities. In conclusion, Cissus quadrangularis appears worthy of pharmacological investigations for new drug formulations.</p> 硬化的天真感染艾滋病毒的病人参加传染病风险评估服务的金沙萨大学教学医院,刚果民主共和国(DRC) 10/13/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt/ijcmbt-aid1015.php <p><strong>Abstract</strong><br /> <br /> <strong>Background and aim:</strong> Metabolic abnormalities are common in HIV/AIDS. Increasingly, lipid ratios are used as screening tools for dyslipidaemia in these medical conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of 4 lipid ratios to predict cardiovascular risks.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This is a cross-sectional and analytical study included 105 HIV+ patients followed in Kinshasa University Teaching Hospital (KUTH). Four indices [Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP), Castelli Risk Index (CRI) I and II, Atherogenic coefficient (AC)] were compared. Statistical analyzis consisted of measuring frequencies and means, Student&rsquo;s t-tests, ANOVA and Ficher&rsquo;s exact test, and the calculation of the Kappa value.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Lipid ratios predicted respectively the risk in 62% (AIP), 28.6% (CRI-I) and 23.8% (CRI-II). CRI-I and II were elevated, especially in women. The AIP appeared to be a better predictor than CRI-I and II to assess dyslipidaemia in general and the high-risk frequency. The cholesterol detected risk in 66.7% (Low HDL-C), 50% (High LDL-C), 38.9% (High TC and/or TG).</p> <p>The atherogenic risk was higher with age, advanced WHO stage, HIV-TB, HBV-HCV co-infections, smoking and alcohol intake. Haemoglobin (Hb) and CD4 counts were low when the risk was high. Age &ge; 50 years, stage 4 (WHO), CD4s+ &le; 200 cells/&micro;L were independent factors associated with atherogenic risk.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Lipid ratios can be used as reliable tools for assessing cardiovascular risk of na&iuml;ve HIV-infected patients who received HAARTz</p> 估计2019年全球冠状病毒疾病的病死率(COVID-19)大流行 08/11/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt/ijcmbt-aid1014.php <h2>Abstract</h2> <p><strong>Background: </strong>There is a huge global loss of lives due to COVID-19 pandemic, the primary epicentre of which is China, where the causative agent of the disease, SARS-CoV-2 was first emerged in December 2019. This study aims to explore the severity, in terms of case fatality rate (CFR), of COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Data of ongoing COVID-19 global pandemic were retrieved from website of the WHO, and processed for the estimation of global (both including and excluding China) CFRs of COVID-19. CFRs were explored following the naive estimates, 14-day delay estimates, and linear regression model analysis, during January 25, 2020 to April 25, 2020, on weekly basis. To explore the current situation, in terms of CFR, data for the next 13 weeks (May 2, 2020 through July 25, 2020), were processed by naive and linear regression model analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Mean CFRs, in naive estimates, were 4.59% for the world including China, and 3.62% for the world excluding China. The 14-day delay estimates of CFRs were 15.6% globally, and 21.65% in countries outside China. Following statistical model, global (both including and excluding China) CFRs were 6.81%, by naive estimates, and ~13%, by 14-day delay estimates. Global CFRs of COVID-19 during May 2, 2020 to July 25, 2020, ranged 4.1% &ndash; 7.04%, by naive estimates, and by statistical regression analysis the CFR was 3.19%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendations: </strong>The CFR might help estimate the need of up-to-date hospital supplies and other mitigation measures for COVID-19 ongoing pandemic, and therefore, instantaneous CFR estimations are recommended.</p> 从垃圾填埋场表征塑料降解细菌的分离 05/28/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt/ijcmbt-aid1013.php <h2>Abstract</h2> <p>The plastic pollution is threatening the environment because it has very slow degradation rate and high usage in regular activities. The present study aims at the isolation of novel microorganisms that would assist faster degradation process of polyethylene. The waste samples were collected from different landfills and dumpsites. Out of forty samples, eight samples were found to degrade polythene strips in liquid medium. Further screening of these samples showed that two strains of microbes had high potential for polythene degradation. Biochemical tests and ribotyping were performed for characterization of isolated bacteria. Resultantly, two novel bacterial strains were identified named; Bacillus wudalianchiensis_UMT (2A) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa_UMT (6). Analysis of these microbes further revealed that Bacillus wudalianchiensis_UMT and Pseudomonas aeruginosa_UMT have capability to degrade 6.6% and 4.8% polyethylene respectively. So, the results disclosed that these bacteria have great potential to degrade polythene in less time as compare to natural degradation process and can contribute to reduce pollution from our environment.</p> 角色辅助细胞(CD4 + T细胞)在人类免疫系统对某些微生物感染:一个迷你回顾 05/11/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt/ijcmbt-aid1012.php <h2>Abstract</h2> <p>The human immune system consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which both provide protective immunity to microbial infection. The adaptive immune system consists of T and B cell which act as second line defense through production of neutralizing antibody by B cells and cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells.&nbsp; The CD4+ T-cell performs a central role in the immune responses. These cells also known as T4 or helper/inducer T lymphocytes recognize antigens presented by antigen presenting cells (APC) such as macrophages and monocytes. Once antigens such as bacteria and viruses are presented, CD4+ T lymphocytes orchestrate the body&rsquo;s antigen-specific immune response by Coordinating B-lymphocyte production of antibodies to these antigens, producing cytokines and induction of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. The paper was aimed to review the role of T-helper cells (CD4+ T cells) in human immune system against some microbial infections.</p> 理化和微生物的油轮在班加罗尔城市水域质量安全的水供应 05/11/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt/ijcmbt-aid1011.php <h2>Abstract</h2> <p>This study investigated the water quality of tanker waters that was collected from Bengaluru urban areas to assess its suitability for domestic purpose. A total of 50 samples were collected in dry (March 2019) season. All samples were analyzed for various hydrochemical parameters, such as pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (as CaCO3), calcium (Ca2+), chloride (Cl&minus;) and nitrate (NO3&minus;). Bacteriological analyses of water samples were analyzed for total coliform count. A very high level of total hardness (186 - 434.6 mg L-1) was determined in 27 water samples tested in this study indicating the necessity of water treatment before used for domestic purpose. Of the 50 samples tested, 7 showed a most probable number (MPN) index of &lt; 23 and 9 showed &lt; 240 and the remaining 34 were unsatisfactory with an MPN index of &gt; 1600 per 100 ml. In some locations, the presence of high MPN index, in particular, rings the bell before using the tanker water in houses and restaurants. Exploration of the mechanisms by which water quality deteriorates during supply chain and potential implication for regulatory policy for monitoring of tanker water while distribution is the need of the hour.</p> 发展基于ELISA检测系统对肉毒杆菌B型 04/30/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt/ijcmbt-aid1010.php <h2>Abstract</h2> <p>Botulism is the disease caused by botulinum neurotoxins. It is produced by an obligate anaerobic bacteria called Clostridium botulinum. There is no immuno-detection system available in the world for the detection of C. botulinum. Secretory proteins of cooked meat media grown C. botulinum type B were extracted by TCA precipitation method. Polyclonal antibodies were generated against secretory proteins. Cytokine profiling of secretory proteins were done. An immunodetection system was developed to detect the C. botulinum type B using Secretory proteins of C. botulinum type B.</p> 生产和评价enzyme-modified lighvan奶酪使用不同级别的商业酶 02/27/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt/ijcmbt-aid1009.php <h2>Abstract</h2> <p>Enzyme-modified cheeses are concentrated cheese flavors produced enzymatically from dairy substrates in order to provide an intense source of cheese flavor with broad applications. Lighvan cheese is an Iranian traditional cheese with a pleasant taste and flavor generated after ripening. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to use commercial enzymes to produce enzyme-modified Lighvan cheese made from unripened and immature cheese. In this study, Neutrase (0.05%, 0.15%, and 0.2%) and Flavourzyme (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2%) were added to the base mixture. The resulting mixture was stored in an incubator for 24, 72, and 96 h to provide intense cheese flavor. Sensory evaluations of all samples in terms of bitterness, flavor, taste, and general acceptance were also carried out.</p> <p>The results of the sensory evaluations revealed no significant difference between most of the samples in terms of bitterness, flavor, taste, and general acceptance with respect to the incubation duration and the type and level of the commercial enzymes (p &le; 0.05). However, the effect of the different concentrations of Flavourzyme on the cheese texture was significant after 24, 72, and 96 h of incubation (p &le; 0.05). In addition, the effects of the different concentrations of Neutrase on the cheese texture were significant after 96 h of incubation (p &le; 0.05). Finally, the effect of different concentrations of Flavourzyme on the general acceptance of the samples was significant following 24, 72, and 96 h of incubation (p &le; 0.05). In general, considering the flavor, taste, texture and general acceptance scores of the enzyme-modified Lighvan cheese samples, the best sample was the sample produced by using 0.1% Neutrase and 0.1% Flavourzyme mixture.</p> 在网上发现潜在的抑制剂对Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4: 2型糖尿病的主要生物目标 02/26/2020//m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt/ijcmbt-aid1008.php <h2>Abstract</h2> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> Type-2 diabetes mellitus, caused by impaired secretion of insulin, is becoming one of the health hazardous threats to human lives across the world. Its prevalence is rising with time. In this study, 2750 phytochemicals, that are considered to have great ability to eliminate diseases caused by different viruses and bacteria, are obtained from different medicinal plants and discovery of inhibitors through in silico method was performed against Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4).</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> The pharmacological assessment and pharmacokinetics of phytochemicals, molecular docking and density functional theory (DFT) analysis helped to explore the inhibitory action of phytochemicals against DPP4. Total forty-nine phytochemicals were screened initially to reduce the number of compounds to be analyzed further based on a threshold of binding affinity &ge; -5.5 kcal/mol and were considered for further computational studies to analyze their inhibitory effects for DPP4. For comparison and validation of the results of present study, various previously reported and experimentally validated compounds were docked with the DPP4. For these dockings, binding affinity was predicted and compared with those of phytochemicals to check if these phytochemicals are competent enough to be used as an inhibitor in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in the future.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Only four phytochemicals showed binding affinity greater than those of experimentally validated compounds. These included two phytochemicals from Silybum marianum, i.e. Diprenyleriodictyol and Taxifolin and while other two phytochemicals from Santolina insularis and Erythrina Varigatae i.e. Papraline and Osajin respectively. The reactivity levels for these four phytochemicals with the binding site residues of DPP4 were obtained by DFT based analysis, in which ELUMO, EHOMO and band energy gap were computed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on these results, it is concluded that these four phytochemicals, after passing through in vitro and in vivo validation, can be utilized as potential DPP4 inhibitors as they have strong properties as compared to those of various experimentally validated inhibitors.</p> 苏伊士运河大学的知识、观念和实践学生关于丙型肝炎病毒感染风险和预防的方法 07/05/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt/ijcmbt-aid1007.php <h2>Abstract</h2> <p><strong>Background:</strong> Egypt has the highest prevalence of HCV in the world as more than 10% of population suffers from HCV infection. High prevalence of HCV in Egypt represents a great risk to the whole population that requires aggressive mass awareness regarding routes of infection and means of prevention.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To determine the knowledge and practices of university students in 5 different faculties in Suez Canal University regarding HCV infection and means of prevention.</p> <p><strong>Materials and method:</strong> A cross sectional study was conducted in five university faculties in Suez Canal University.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study included 698 students from the faculties of Medicine, Pharmacy, Dentistry, Nursing and Education in Suez Canal University in Ismailia city in Egypt. There was a statistically significant difference regarding the knowledge about the diagnosis, complications and routes of transmission total knowledge score for HCV among the different faculties.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and Recommendations:</strong> Knowledge and practices of university students in Suez Canal University is partial to weak especially in students of non-biological sciences who have less close contact with patients.</p> 铜绿假单胞菌菌株的毒力基因分离苏伊士运河大学医院对感染和抗菌素耐药性 07/05/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt/ijcmbt-aid1006.php <h2>Abstract</h2> <p><strong>Background: </strong>Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the top five pathogens causing healthcare-associated infections. Biofilm formation is nowadays a major problem. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of virulence genes in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at Suez Canal University Hospitals with respect to the site of infection and microbial resistance of the strains.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 47 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains collected from hospitalized patients from December 2015 to August 2017. To detect biofilm formation, we used Tissue Culture Plate Method. The virulence genes (toxA, algD, nan1, pslA and pelA) were amplified using PCR technique.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The highest sensitivity was to Imipenem and Ciprofloxacin (85.1% and 68.1% respectively).With respect to the virulence genes, toxA gene was detected in 45 isolates (95.7%), algD gene in 42 isolates (89.4%), pslA in 42 isolates (89.4%) %), pelA cted in 41 isolates (87.2%) and nan1gene was detected in 19 isolates (40.45%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions and Recommendations: </strong>We conclude that there is relationship between virulence genes and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We recommend the expansion of work on a larger sample size in a longer period of time.</p> 主机传染病早期诊断生物标记:一个全面的审查 06/05/2019//m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt/ijcmbt-aid1005.php <h2>Abstract</h2> <p>Biomarkers have been used in the diagnosis of disease and other conditions for many decades. There are diverse ranges of analytical targets, including metabolites, nucleic acids and proteins were used as a biomarker. Clinical diagnoses already rely heavily on these for patient disease classification, management, and informing treatment and care pathways. For that there is always a need of rapid and point of care test. However, until fairly recently, studies of biomarker efficacy in a clinical setting were mainly limited to single or dual use, and the landscape was complex, confused, and often inconsistent. Few candidates emerged from this somewhat clouded picture: C-reactive protein, procalcitonin (PCT) for sepsis, ADA for mycobacterium tuberculosis and a Circulating miRNAs serve as molecular markers for diverse physiological and pathological conditions.</p> 回顾filaricidal活性植物化学的提取物对丝虫病和寄生虫基因组多样性 10/26/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt/ijcmbt-aid1004.php <h2>Abstract</h2> <p>Filariasis is one of the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) known to be of serious public health importance and pose devastating socio-economic burden especially among the poor people in tropical and subtropical countries of the world. The parasite is responsible for lymphatic filariasis affecting about 1.3 billion people in 72 countries worldwide. The major parasitic agents of the infection are three closely related nematodes of clade Onchocercidaei namely Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori that are transmitted to human through bites by mosquitoes of genera: Aedes, Anopheles, Culex and Mansonia. The disease is targeted by the World Health Organization (WHO) for elimination by 2020 through the use of chemically synthesized drugs used as therapeutic agents to cure the disease but there are some setbacks. Phytochemical extracts are viewed as alternative therapy in the management of the disease. Additionally, the species have many ecological variants and are diversified in terms of their genetic fingerprint. This diversification in terms of genomic sequences as well as rapid infection rate warrant the lymphatic filarial parasites to respond differently to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Thus understanding the genomic diversity of the parasite will help in efficient therapeutic management of the disease, thereby eliminating it to prevent unnecessary suffering and contribute to the reduction of poverty. In this review, we have highlighted on the used for phytochemical extracts in the therapeutic management of the lymphatic and the molecular genetic diversity of the parasite was delineated.</p> 锥虫属dionisii作为实验模型来研究anti-Trypanosoma cruzi药物:比较分析与使用苄硝唑、泊沙康唑胺碘酮 10/17/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt/ijcmbt-aid1003.php <h2>Abstract</h2> <p>Chagas disease is a public health problem in Latin America and its treatment is based on the use of benznidazole or nifurtimox compounds. Both present problems such as resistance, inefficiency in chronic infection and cytotoxic effects. New compounds such as posaconazole and amiodarone have been tested against T. cruzii and shown to be effective. In addition, new molecules have been synthesized and tested against T. cruzii. Because this protozoan is highly pathogenic, even with a number of cases of accidental laboratory infections, few laboratories located outside Latin America are authorized to work with its infective developmental stages. On the other hand, Trypanosoma dionisii is a non-pathogenic protozoan phylogenetically related to T. cruzii and that shares similar strategies to complete its life cycle in mammalian cells in vitro. Here, we describe a comparative analysis of the sensitivity of both parasites to benznidazole, posoconazole and amiodarone. We also analyzed the morphological effects of these compounds on both Trypanosoma species using electron microscopy. Our results show that T. dionisii is more sensitive to the compounds tested than T. cruzii. They also support a previous suggestion that it may constitute an excellent model for large scale screening of compounds against T. cruzii.</p> 评价小说文化媒体准备从植物基质分离和鉴定的新型隐球菌物种复杂 08/14/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt/ijcmbt-aid1002.php <h2>Abstract</h2> <p><strong>Background:</strong> Melanin production due to phenoloxidase activity is a distinctive property of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species complex yeasts. Therefore, an agar medium containing a precursor of melanin pigment is potentially useful to identify and differentiate cryptococcal colonies from other yeasts.</p> <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study aimed to evaluate and compare the ability of Cryptococcus neoformans species complex isolates to produce brown-pigmented colonies when grown on media prepared from various plant leaves or seeds extracts.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> Forty-six C. neoformans species complex isolates which were obtained from various environmental and clinical samples were inoculated on different media containing coriander, cumin, soybean, lupine, flax, pumpkin, basil, peppermint, and marjoram, were observed for the rate of growth and pigment production during a five-day period.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All isolates were pigmented on all media within 24-48 hours, and brown or dark brown colonies were observed in less than five days, while C. albicans grew but did not produce any pigment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The differential media tested in the present study are simple and inexpensive, and represent alternative valid tools for presumptive identification of C. neoformans species complex from clinical and environmental samples.</p> 艾滋病毒感染患者口腔念珠菌殖民:物种,在利比亚的的黎波里/抗真菌敏感性 08/03/2018//m.lakotalakes.com/hcmbt/ijcmbt-aid1001.php <h2>Abstract</h2> <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Candidiasis is more frequent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and knowledge about the distribution and antifungal susceptibility of oral Candida species is important for effective management of candidiasis.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> An oral rinses sample collected from hundred HIV-infected patients with and without clinical evidence of oral candidiasis in this study at the Infectious Department/Tripoli Medical Center, Libya. Species identified by standard phenotypic and conventional methods and in vitro susceptibility testing of the yeast isolates to antifungals were performed using the Disc diffusion method protocol as recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Scientific Institute.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Oral Candida colonization is detected in all patients with and without clinical syndromes, and Candida albicans were accounted for (74%), C. dubliniensis (11%) and C. glabrata (6%). A high proportion of Candida species (42%) showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole. Among C., albicans more than 30% of isolate were resistant to most new azole antifungal including fluconazole, itraconazole, posoconazole and voriconazole.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> A significant number of oral Candida species particular Candida albicans exhibiting decreased susceptibility to fluconazole were isolated from colonized HIV-infected individual, given the high incidence and severity of fungal infections in HIV-infected individuals. The results of this study reinforce the importance of antifungal susceptibility testing, which contributes to the therapeutic strategies and highlights the need for continuous surveillance of Candida colonization in this population.</p>